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Table Of Contents

INTRODUCTION
SPINIFEX TEXTURE
Definition
Occurrence
Why spinifex texture?
CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS
Effects of alteration
Olivine fractionation in komatiites
Mobile and immobile elements: the olivine control line criterion
Mobile elements
More altered komatiites
Mobility of Mg
Other types of mobile element behavior
Crustal contamination
CHEMICAL TYPES
THE ORIGIN OF KOMATIITE MAGMA
KOMATIITES AS MANTLE WITNESSES
GREENSTONE BELT ASSEMBLAGE TYPES
Mafic assemblages
Intermediate to felsic volcanic assemblages
Late Unconformable basins
Continental style volcanism
Archean ophiolites
Sedimentary assemblages
RELATIONS BETWEEN ASSEMBLAGES
Spatial and secular patterns
Inferences for Archean processes
Uniqueness of the Archean
Archean greenstones as a component of crustal evolution
GREENSTONE TECTONIC ASSEMBLAGES AND TERRANES
GREENSTONE GEOCHEMISTRY
General features
TWa-LdYb relationships
Greenstones and supercontinents
GEOLOGIC SETTINGS OF ARCHEAN SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
PRINCIPAL TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN ARCHEAN GREENSTONE BELTS
Pyroclastic and autoclastic deposits
Terrigenous epiclastic sedimentary rocks
Orthochemical deposits
Biogenic deposits
ARCHEAN GREENSTONE-BELT SEDIMENTARY ASSOCIATIONS
Felsic/lntermediate Volcaniclastic-Terrigenous Association (FVT)
Orogenic Terrigenous Associations (OTt and OTaB
Anorogenic Polycyclic Terrigenous Association (APT)
Depositional settings of Archean lithofacies associations
Archean tectonics and sedimentation
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
EVIDENCE FROM THE 3.2-2.9 GA RECORD
Dominion and Nsuze Groups
Lower Witwatersrand Supergroup and Mozaan Group
Beitbridge Complex: Central Zone, Limpopo Province
Buhwa Greenstone Belt, Zimbabwe
Steep Rock Group, Superior Province
Other examples
EVIDENCE FROM THE 2.7-2.5 GA RECORD
Manjeri Formation, Ngezi Group
Ventersdorp Supergroup and Fortescue Group
Chuniespoort-Ghaap and Hamersley Groups
DISCUSSION AND BROADER IMPLICATIONS
CONCLUSIONS
FIELD DATA AND PETROLOGY
GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Major elements
Trace elements
Comparison with sanukitoids
PETROGENESIS
Geochemical data
Nb-Ta-Ti anomalies
Experimental data
COMPARISON BETWEEN ARCHEAN AND MODERN GRANITOIDS
Variation of juvenile granitoid composition
Petrogenetic model
Test of the proposed model
Modern analogue of Archean subduction
GEOLOGIC SETTING OF ARCHEAN GRANITE PLUTONS
Pilbara Block, Western Australia
Yilgarn Block, Western Australia
Superior Province, Canada
Slave Province, Canada
Wyoming Province, USA
Kaapvaal Craton, Southern. Africa
North Atlantic Craton, Southern West Greenland
General characteristics
A NORMALIZATION DIAGRAM FOR GRANITE PLUTONS
CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CALC-ALKALINE GRANITE PLUTONS
Phanerozoic plutons
CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF STRONGLY PERALUMINOUS GRANITE PLUTONS
Phanerozoic Plutons
Archean plutons
Archean plutons compared to their Phanerozoic counterparts
HEAT SOURCES
Advection
Conduction
Decompression
Metasomatism
Towards a model of Archean granite formation
TECTONIC ENVIRONMENT
SUMMARY
FIELD RELATIONS
MAGMATIC TEXTURES AND STRUCTURES
TECTONIC FABRICS AND METAMORPHIC TEXTURES
PETROLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY
AGES AND ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS
DESCRIPTIONS OF SELECTED OCCURRENCES OF ARCHEAN ANORTHOSITES
North Atlantic Craton
Kalahari Craton, Southern Africa
Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons, Australia
Anabar Shield, Siberia
Baltic Shield
ORIGIN OF ARCHEAN ANORTHOSITES
Analogies and comparisons
Parental magmas and petrogenesis
Anorthosite emplacement
Tectonic setting
Exhumed deep crust
Giant granulite complexes
Areas reworked in the granulite facies
HIGH-PRESSURE METAMORPHISM
HIGH-TEMPERATURE METAMORPHISM
Napier Complex, Enderby Land, Antarctica
The Lewisian Complex of Scotland
Lubwor Hills, Uganda
CARBONIC FLUIDS IN HIGH-GRADE METAMORPHISM
Dharwar Craton
Wind River Mountains, Wyoming
Napier Complex, Antarctica
Aldan Shield, Siberia
Narryer Gneiss Complex, Western Australia
Hebei Province, China
Wind River Range, Wyoming province
West Greenland
Concluding statement
ARCHEAN LOWER-CRUSTAL GRANULITE XENOLITHS
Bearpaw Mountains, Montana
Abitibi belt, Superior province
ARCHEAN GRANULITES AND CONTINENTAL COLLISION
ARCHEAN GRANULITE METAMORPHISM AND MAGMATISM
Basaltic magmas
Granitic magmas
Intermediate magmas
Charnockitic magmas
ARCHEAN GEOTHERMAL GRADIENTS
COMPARISON WITH YOUNGER HIGH-GRADE METAMORPHIC BELTS
ALDAN PROVINCE
Olekma terrane
Aldan terrane
Uchur terrane
Batomga terrane
Udokan orogenic belt
Ulkan orogenic belt
STANOVOY PROVINCE
Mogocha terrane
Dzheltulak orogenic belt
Tynda terrane
Sutam terrane
OLENEK PROVINCE
Birekte terrane
Aekit orogenic belt
Hapschan terrane
ANABAR PROVINCE
Daldyn terrane
Markha terrane
MAGAN PROVINCE
TUNGUS PROVINCE
YENISEY PROVINCE
AKITKAN OROGENIC BELT
ANGARA OROGENIC BELT
DISCUSSION
CLASSIFICATION OF ARCHEAN TERRAINS
SYNVOLCANIC DEPOSITS IN GREENSTONE BELTS
Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits
Deposit characteristics and associations
Komatiite-associated nickel deposits
Rare element pegmutites
METALLOGENIC SYNTHESIS
Tectonics of Late Archean terrains
Tectonics related to Late Archean rnetallogeny
Older Archean metallogeny
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
ORIGIN OF THE ATMOSPHERE
GEOLOGIC EVIDENCE FOR THE COMPOSITION OF THE 3.8-3.0 Ga ATMOSPHERE
PROCESSES THAT SHAPED THE ARCHEAN ATMOSPHERE
LATE ARCHEAN ATMOSPHERIC CHANGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
SUBJECT INDEX
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Arc He an Crustal Evolution

Arc He an Crustal Evolution

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Published by Charles Oliveira

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Published by: Charles Oliveira on Apr 24, 2012
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