Why an organisation does undergo changes? What are the factors and reasons for undertaking it? According to MacCalman and Parton themost influential factor in changes in organisations is the external environment which instigates reaction. Some of the examples given by MacCalmanand Parton in the external environment that triggers changes in the organisation are:
Changes in technology being utilised
Changes in the tastes and expectations of the consumers
Changes due to competition
Changes because of legislation by the government
Changes due to modifications in the economy whether locally or internationally
Changes in the communications media
Changes in the value systems of the society
Changes in the supply chain
Changes in the distribution chain
The second factor that initiates change in the organisation is the internal
changes which are the reactions of the organisation to the external changes. Aside from the responses there are also some factors that contribute tothe internal changes, an example of this is a new marketing strategy for existing and new products.
And finally, changes in organisation happen if they try to act in advance in order to deal with the expected risks and difficulty. An example iswhen an organisation anticipates the problems that may occur and creates and devises plans to combat and negate the impact of those problems.
Nickols (2006) has four basic definitions of change management, according to him it is a task of managing changes, a field of professionalpractice, a body of knowledge and information and a control mechanism.
Task of Managing Change-
Nickols defined managing cha
nges as “the devising of transformation in a planned and systematic fashion.”
He stated that the main objective of managing change is to efficiently implement new techniques and methods within the organisation, moreover thechanges to be handled depends upon the control of the organisation. Aside from the definition mentioned earlier, Nickols also has a second definition
on managing changes and it is “the reactions to changes in which the organisation has no control. “
Area of Professional Practice-
in what way professional practice came into managing changes? Are there any relations between the two?Years ago, managing changes in a corporation is done by the management, supervisors, and CEO of the company, but nowadays with the constantchange in the concepts of business and evolution of new theories a number of people have developed firms that particularly addresses the issuesregarding managing changes. According to Nickols there are a number of individuals and consulting firms that declare they engaged in activities thatinvolves planned change and that the firm exercises change management practices.
A Body of Knowledge-
The body of knowledge in change management according to Nickols includes the following, models, methods andtechniques, tools and various forms of knowledge that constructs the change management practice. Moreover, Nickols discussed that the contentof change management is influence by sociology, psychology, business administration, industrial engineering, economics, systems engineering andhuman and organisational behaviour.
over the past years groups and individuals handling the information systems of organisation have tried to control anddirect changes to the applications and systems of the company, however, in recent years people working in this particular area have referredthis mechanism
of control as “Change management.”
Perception regarding change management has evolved over the past years. Change management is utilised in new procedure, structures, andtechnologies in order to overpower the resistance to change, however as studies and ideas regarding change management evolved over the pastyears, the view on change management switched from a tool in overcoming resistance to developing strength and involvement in transformation. Dueto this change management is now regarded as leadership ability than a responsive instrument in handling resistance.