I. Europeanisation, conditionality and reform in the CEECs
Over the last few years the growth of the Europeanization literature has beenconsiderable (Featherstone and Radaelli, 2003; Cowles et al., 2001; Dyson, 2000;Radaelli, 2000; Borzei 1999; Heritier, 1998; Featherstone, 1998). Yet, with few recentexceptions (Agh, 1999; Goetz, 2001a; Grabbe, 2001a, 2003; Demetropoulou, 2001),much of the debate on Europeanisation has predominantly focused on the way inwhich existing Member States are being transformed by EU membership. The processof Europeanisation, in this respect, is seen as a constant two-way interaction betweenthe 'national' and the 'European' (Cowles et. al, 2001), with Member States assumingthe role of both contributors and products of European integration (Rometsch andWessels, 1996). In other words, whilst EU Member States are the principal architectsof the European polity, they are often unable to control the timing and shape in whichthe outcomes of this polity are transposed into the national setting (Cole, 2001; Meny,1996). Within this context, Ladrech defines Europeanisation as the process in which'EC political and economic dynamics become part of the organisational logic of national politics and policy making' (Ladrech, 1994, p. 69). Building on Ladrech,Radaelli has broadened the definition of Europeanisation to include:
Processes of (a) construction, (b) diffusion, and (c) institutionalisation of formal and informai rules, procedures, policy paradigms, styles, 'ways of doing things', and shared beliefs and norms which are first defined and Consolidated in the making of EU public policy and politics and thenintegrated in the logic of domestic discourse, identities, political structuresand public policies.
(Radaelli, 2003, p. 30)It is on the basis of such a definition that this paper proceeds.Given the substance of the EU's relationship with non-Member States and the breadthof Radaelli's definition, it is to be expected that the processes of Europeanisation canbe and have been exported. Nowhere else can this be seen more clearly than in thecase of the CEECs seeking membership of the EU, all of which have been subjectedto the same adaptational pressures of Europeanisation (institutional, cognitive andstrategic) as Knill and Lehmkuhl (1999) have described in the case of the existing EU