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ROTI

# ROTI

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The write-up explains in details about the function and practical utility of ROTI in negotiating curved segments of vessel's charted course. It serves practical purposes in addition to being helpful in MMD examinations.
The write-up explains in details about the function and practical utility of ROTI in negotiating curved segments of vessel's charted course. It serves practical purposes in addition to being helpful in MMD examinations.

Published by: captyashpal on Apr 25, 2012

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01/21/2014

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Page What is ROTI (Rate Of Turn Indicator)?

For more details please visit:www.captyashpal.blogspot.com
RATE OF TURN INDICATOR(R.O.T.I.)
Unlike road vehicles a ship does not turn sharply. With lesser friction in water and under theinfluence of momentum a vessel continues on her initial course for some time, begin

ning to turnslowly and then rapidly later. Vessel thus traverses a curved track which can be treated as an arc of a circle.For small ships such arcs are small and can be executed without much problem. But for large sizedmerchant vessels these arcs assume greater radii and need to be treated differently. This becomesall the more important when vessel is altering courses in restricted waters or in close proximity tonavigational hazards.For same reasons roundabouts are charted in traffic separation schemes.Under navigation watch keeping principles, vessel is required to do berth to berth passageplanning. It is also required to lay courses in curved segments as well, where required and to mark the wheel over positions.In view of the above, vessels having 50,000 GT and above are mandatorily required to be fittedwith ROTI (Rate Of Turn Indicator) as per Chapter V, SOLAS.ROTI assists OOW in planning, executing and monitoring vessel’s progress along curved segmentof charted course.

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Page What is ROTI (Rate Of Turn Indicator)?

For more details please visit:www.captyashpal.blogspot.com
The purpose of ROTI is to provide rate of turn to port and to starboard side of ship. The indicator isusually in the form of a circular dial with zero at top. Port turn is indicated on left of zero andstarboard turn on right of zero. Graduations are provided to indicate ROT up to at least 30degrees/minute on either side. ROTI can be self-contained, or it may derive information from otherequipment or it may form a part of the other equipment. However, the design is such as to precludedegradation of other equipment to which ROTI is connected, irrespective of weather ROTI is inoperation or not.
DERIVATION OF FORMULA FOR
ROT
:
ROT (
/t) is expressed in degrees per minute.Consider following diagram:PB = Initial courseBN = Final courseAC = Curved segment of charted course;A is commencement of turn and C is completion of turn.Length of the curved segment = d
= Amount of alteration in degrees (Angle MBN or Angle

AOC)
C
=
in radiansR = Radius of the circle of which arc forms the partt = Time

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Page What is ROTI (Rate Of Turn Indicator)?

For more details please visit:www.captyashpal.blogspot.com
Now, we know that, by definition, radian is the angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arcequal in length to the radius of the circle. Thus, we have:
C
= d/R = (V x t)/R

Or,
/57.3
o
= (V x t)/R (Note:
is in degrees)Or,
/t = (V x 57.3)/R in degrees /hourOr,
/t = (V x 57.3)/60R in degrees /minuteUsing approximation and cancelling 60 and 57.3 with each other, we have:
/t = V/R in degrees /minuteThus, we have ROT (
/t) given by:
EXAMPLE:
Let us assume that a vessel’s init

ial course is 000 (T) and final course is 060 (T). Sheis steaming at 15 knots and intends to negotiate a turn about an islet keeping a distance of 1.5miles. What will be the ROT and how long will she take to complete the turn?
= V
(degrees per minute)
t R
So, ROT = V/R = 15 / 1.5 = 10 degrees.Thus vessel will turn at the rate 10 degrees per minute, while maintaining a distance of 1.5 milesfrom the islet.Now amount of alteration = 60 dereesThus vessel will take 60/10 = 6 minutes to complete the turn
In this method radius R is kept constant.We have seen that rate of turn (ROT) is given by (
/t) = V/ROr, R = V/ (
/t)If radius R is to be kept constant, the expression on the RHS will have to be kept constant. But asvessel turns, velocity V reduces. Thus ROT (
/t) will have to be varied proportionately so as keepR as constant. Thus in
ROT does not remain same and changes as vessel
= V
(degrees per minute)
t R

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