into the tube. These emittedelectrons have a greatdeal of kinetic energy. Theﬂuorescent tubes are ﬁlledwith a combination ofmercury vapor and one ofthe noble gases, such asargon. The pressure insideof a ﬂuorescent tube isless than 1% ofatmospheric pressure.Some of these high-energy electrons collidewith atoms of the gasinside of the tube. If theelectrons have sufﬁcientenergy when they collidewith an atom of the gas,they can transfer some oftheir energy to excite anelectron to a higher energylevel. After a very shortperiod of time, theseexcited electrons will “fallback” to their originalenergy levels and, in theprocess, emit a photon, aparticle of light.However, the story doesn’t end here. These emitted photons from the mercury gas have agreat of energy. The greater the energy of a photon, the higher the frequency. These photonsare not in the visible spectrum but are in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum and, therefore,invisible to human eyes. We now get to the reason why ﬂuorescent tubes are called“ﬂuorescent.” The inside of the tube is coated with a ﬂuorescent material. When one of theultraviolet photons collide with the ﬂuorescent material on the inside of the tube, some of theenergy is transferred to the electrons in the ﬂuorescent material, elevating them to a higherenergy level. The rest of the energy is absorbed by the ﬂuorescent material. The ﬂuorescentmaterial is chosen such that the energy absorbed by the electron in that material is such thatwhen that electron “falls back” to its original energy level, it emits a lower energy photon, aphoton in the visible part of the spectrum. The ﬂuorescent material may be a combination ofdifferent elements and compounds such that a variety of photons of different wavelengths inthe visible spectrum are emitted.