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Razones para desarrollar una política industrial activa en España(Es)/ Reasons for developing an active industrial policy in Spain(Spanish)/ Espainian industria politika aktibo bat garatzearen arrazoiak(Es)

Razones para desarrollar una política industrial activa en España(Es)/ Reasons for developing an active industrial policy in Spain(Spanish)/ Espainian industria politika aktibo bat garatzearen arrazoiak(Es)

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Published by: EKAI Center on Apr 25, 2012
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10/03/2013

 
RNYJHOS [NRN MOSNRRJAANR_HN [JAÄ]FCN FHM_S]RFNA NC]FUN OH OS[NÞN 
 NAOINHMRJ AOLNRMN YNRNLÑO]N 
Cjhsoiorj Mfroc}jr LohornaCjhs}ruccfjhos v Nupfafnr mo Eorrjcnrrfaos! SN
 NH]JHFJ @FMNALJ H_C@ORN 
Cn}omrî}fcj mo Jrlnhfyncfóh mo Od{rosns_hforsfmnm [jaf}æchfcn mo Dnmrfm
An ronafmnm rocfoh}o hjs fhmfcn ~uo huojs soc}jros mo nc}ffmnm ocjhódfcn `nh odorlfmj n{nr}fr mo an mæcnmn mo ajs hjoh}n moa sflaj {nsnmj! dfoh}rns ~uo j}rjs `nh fmj lrnmunadoh$}o mosn{nrocfohmj j mfsdfhuvohmj su {osj moh}rj mo an ocjhjdän mo ajs {näsos mosnrrjaan$mjs! aj ~uo `n fd{afcnmj cndbfjs os}ruc}urnaos sflhfefcn}fjs Os}js cndbfjs! euhmndoh}nmjs
{rfhcf{nadoh}o oh uh usj fh}ohsfj mo an }ochjajlän{jr {nr}o mo ans od{rosns v oh uh euor}o n`jrrj mocjs}os! `nh fd{uasnmj an op{uasfóh mo dnhj mo jbrnmosmo an nlrfcua}urn v! oh dohjr domfmn! mo an fh$mus}rfn `ncfn j}rjs soc}jros dîs {rjmuc}fjs cjdj ajssorfcfjs mo na}j najr nþnmfmj! sfh cjh}nr cjh oa holn$}fj fd{nc}j cnusnmj n hfoa mo mosod{aoj v an n{n$rfcfóh mo soc}jros §fhejrdnaos· oh hudorjsjs {näsosLohornadoh}o! ajs nloh}os lohornmjros mo osn }rnhs$ejrdncfóh }ochjaólfcn v ocjhódfcn suoaoh sor ansod{rosns mo cn{f}na hncfjhna! nuh~uo an {nr}fcf{n$cfóh mo cn{f}na v }ochjajlän op}rnhiorjs {uomo sorroaonh}o oh cfor}js soc}jros Sjh ans {rj{fns od{ro$sns oh an bùs~uomn mo bohoefcfjs! ans ~uo lohornh v n{afcnh ajs nnhcos }ochjaólfcjs ~uo {ordf}oh an{uos}n oh oa dorcnmj mo huojs {rjmuc}js n doij$ros {rocfjs (Hoasjh! 2;;=& _hn ocjhjdän hncfjhnacjd{uos}n {jr od{rosns mfhîdfcns v }ochjaólfcn$doh}o nnhynmns }ohmorî n crocor dîs mo{rfsn~uo j}rn ~uo hj {json os}ns cnrnc}oräs}fcns (Mjsf!>600& [jr }nh}j! oa cjhjcfdfoh}j v od{aoj mo ajsdocnhfsdjs ~uo `ncoh ~uo ans od{rosns croycnh v cjd{f}nh oh ajs dorcnmjs fh}orhncfjhnaos cjhs}f$}uvo uh enc}jr crä}fcj {nrn {rjdjor oa {rjlrosj moajs {näsos (JOCM! >666& Nco{}nhmj ~uo oa oh}jrhj oh oa ~uo so mosnrrjaan `jv an nc}ffmnm od{rosnrfna os na}ndoh}o cjd{o}f}fj v ~uo opfs}oh uhjs enc}jros mo {rosfóh duv fsfbaos oh}roajs ~uo {uomoh mos}ncnrso oa os}roc`ndfoh}j mo ajsdîrlohos! an lajbnafyncfóh moa dorcnmj v oa {n{oa{ro{jhmornh}o mo an }ochjajlän! rosua}n uh fd{orn$}fj mo cnrîc}or os}rn}ælfcj {nrn nerjh}nr an cjd{o$}ohcfn eu}urn }rn}nr mo {oreoccfjhnr ans od{rosns modnhorn ~uo dnpfdfcoh su cjh}rfbucfóh nsolurnh$mj oa dnvjr najr nþnmfmj n ajs cafoh}os Oh os}o soh$}fmj! ans cn{ncfmnmos mfroc}fns mo sus los}jros j{rj{fo}nrfjs cjhs}f}uvo uh enc}jr mo æpf}j cano vn~uo sus mocfsfjhos mo fhorsfóh! cjj{orncfóh! ejr$dncfóh mo od{aonmjs! dnrgo}fhl! F'M! o}c! mo}or$dfhnh su rf}dj mo doijrn }ochjaólfcn (Gfd v Hoasjh!2;;?&Sfh odbnrlj! sf bfoh {nr}o mo oso {rjcosj mo }rnhs$ejrdncfóh v doijrn }ochjaólfcns os nu}óhjdj v {uomo sor encfaf}nmj {jr ans {rj{fns euoryns moa dor$cnmj! {uomo hj sor suefcfoh}o j modnsfnmj aoh}jros{oc}j na {rjlrosj mo ans od{rosns cjd{o}fmjrnsmo j}rjs {näsos! j n ajs {rj{fjs jbio}fjs ocjhódf$cjs v mo {rjlrosj moa {näs oh cuos}fóh! cjh aj ~uoos}o }oifmj fhmus}rfna {jmrän hj sjbroffr n domfj janrlj {anyj Oh os}o cnsj! an fh}orohcfóh moa ljbfor$hj {uomo sor hocosnrfn! {uos}j ~uo an cjd{o}ohcfnmo ajs dorcnmjs hj fd{uasn oh cfor}js cnsjs suefcfoh$}odoh}o n sus od{rosns n fhhjnr v! {jr }nh}j! ndoijrnr su }ochjajlän v {rjmuc}ffmnm (Rjmrfg! 2;;=&Rosua}n ofmoh}o! oh os}o {uh}j! ~uo cfor}js {näsos sjhdîs oefcncos ~uo j}rjs n an `jrn mo {rjdjor domf$mns {jaä}fcns! ocjhódfcns v sjcfnaos ~uo {ordf}nh oamosnrrjaaj mo od{rosns cjd{o}f}fns Hj jbs}nh}o! os}ocndfhj {uomo lohornr oh cfor}js cnsjs uh oeoc}j cjh$
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 N AOLNRMN YNRNLÑO]N * N @FMNALJ H_C@ORN 
}rnrfj! {uos ans od{rosns ~uo n{jvnmns {jr sus lj$bforhjs so sfoh}oh {rj}olfmns {jmränh nmj{}nr uhnnc}f}um cjd{ancfoh}o ~uo fhcausj aaolnrn n erohnr sumosnrrjaaj Sf}uncfjhos cjdj os}ns so `nh mnmj oh oa{nsnmj]jdnhmj cjdj {uh}j mo {nr}fmn ~uo oa {rjcosj mo fh$mus}rfnafyncfóh mo uh {näs so fmoh}fefcn cjh su mosnrrj$aaj ocjhódfcj mobfmj n ~uo fd{afcn uh fhcrodoh}jmo ajs hfoaos mo roh}n v cjhaaon uh {rjcosj mo cnd$bfj os}ruc}urna (@fmnalj! Djaorj v Lrnhmn! 2;;<&! v n~uo oa oh}jrhj cjd{o}f}fj fh}orhncfjhna cuoh}n cjhcjd{o}fmjros {rjohfoh}os mo {näsos cjdj C`fhn!]nf|îh j Cjron ~uo os}îh jb}ohfohmj oh}nins cjd${o}f}fns domfnh}o an n{afcncfóh sfs}odî}fcn {jr {nr}omo sus ljbforhjs mo `orrndfoh}ns mo {jaä}fcn fhmus}rfna!oh os}o }rnbnij so nbjrmn oa nhîafsfs mo an hocosfmnmmo moefhfr uhn {jaä}fcn fhmus}rfna oh Os{nþn ~uo! aoijs mosor uh fhs}rudoh}j nh}fcunmj v aflnmj n nh}fluns nc$}f}umos fh}orohcfjhfs}ns mo ajs ljbforhjs! cjhs}f}uvo uhn`orrndfoh}n hocosnrfn {nrn an {rjdjcfóh mo ans fhmus$}rfns hncfjhnaosOa nr}äcuaj so `n os}ruc}urnmj oh cfhcj soccfjhos Oh {rf$dor aulnr! so aaon n cnbj uhn cnrnc}orfyncfóh mo ansf}uncfóh mo Os{nþn domfnh}o ajs fhmfcnmjros dîsmfroc}ndoh}o roancfjhnmjs cjh huos}rn fhmus}rfn Oh so$luhmj aulnr! so fmoh}fefcnh ans rnyjhos! }nh}j mo cnrîc$}or cjhco{}una cjdj j{orn}fns! ~uo hjs moboh fhmu$cfr n n{afcnr uhn {jaä}fcn fhmus}rfna nc}fn An }orcornsoccfóh so coh}rn oh moscrfbfr oa {anh}ondfoh}j mo an_hfóh Ourj{on oh roancfóh na dnrcj ~uo cjhmfcfjhn an{jaä}fcn fhmus}rfna n hfoa hncfjhna! v an cnrnc}orfyncfóhmo an {jaä}fcn fhmus}rfna oh uh {näs mo roeorohcfn cjdjErnhcfn! mjhmo }rnmfcfjhnadoh}o sus mfeoroh}os ljbfor$hjs `nh ohfmj od{aonhmj fhs}rudoh}js mo {jaä}fcnfhmus}rfna cjh fhmumnbao æpf}j Oh an cunr}n soccfóh soronafyn uhn säh}osfs mo an ojaucfóh mo an {jaä}fcn fhmus$}rfna oh Os{nþn v so nhnafyn `ncfn móhmo cndfhn an{jaä}fcn fhmus}rfna os{nþjan }jdnhmj cjdj roeorohcfnoa rocfoh}o [anh Fh}olrna mo [jaä}fcn Fhmus}rfna 2;2; {rj$djfmj {jr oa Dfhfs}orfj mo Fhmus}rfn! Cjdorcfj v ]u$rfsdj! v n{rjbnmj {jr oa Cjhsoij mo Dfhfs}rjs [jr ùa}f$dj! so {anh}onh uh cjhiuh}j mo roeaopfjhos efhnaossjbro an hocosfmnm mo {rfjrfynr an n{afcncfóh mo uhn{jaä}fcn fhmus}rfna oeoc}fn v bnsnmn oh uhn euor}o cjh$cfohcfncfóh {jaä}fcn
CNRNC]ORFYNCFÓH FHM_S]RFNA MO OS[NÞN
Opfs}oh nrfjs fhmfcnmjros ~uo roeaoinh oa hfoa mo fmnmo uh {näs v su cn{ncfmnm {nrn cjd{o}fr oh ajs dor$cnmjs fh}orhncfjhnaos Sfh odbnrlj! ajs ~uo jerocohuhn dîs opnc}n {ors{oc}fn mo os}n ronafmnm sjh an{rjmuc}ffmnm v an cn{ncfmnm {nrn {rjmucfr bfohos
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RNYJHOS [NRN MOSNRRJAANR _HN [JAÄ]FCN FHM_S]RFNA NC]FUN‥
~uo sonh n}rnc}fjs {nrn an sjcfomnm! ns{oc}j æs}o~uo os}î äh}fdndoh}o roancfjhnmj cjh an cn{ncfmnmfhhjnmjrn mo mfc`j {näs v cjh su cn{ncfmnm moop{jr}ncfóh [uos}j ~uo os}js mjs fhmfcnmjros nränhsolùh ajs mfeoroh}os soc}jros mo nc}ffmnm ocjhódf$cn! an cn{ncfmnm mo uh {näs {nrn ncorcnrso n ajsdîs {rjmuc}fjs mo{ohmorî duc`j mo aj ~uo {rjmu$co v op{jr}n n j}rjs {näsos [nr}fohmj mo an bnso ~uoan cjd{o}f}ffmnm os uh enc}jr mfhîdfcj v roan}fj hjbns}n cjh nc}unr sjbro ajs enc}jros ~uo cjhmfcfjhnhan {rjmuc}ffmnm mo uh {näs! sfhj ~uo `nv ~uo `ncorajcjh dîs oefcncfn ~uo ajs {näsos cjd{o}fmjros Oh andomfmn oh ~uo oa hùdorj mo {nr}fcf{nh}os oh ajs dor$cnmjs fh}orhncfjhnaos os cnmn oy dnvjr v ~uo `nv duc`js {näsos cjh {jaä}fcns duv nc}fns mo ejdoh}jmo an cjd{o}f}ffmnm! oa ro}j mo dnh}ohorso cjd{o}f$}fj os cnmn oy dnvjrAn sf}uncfóh nc}una mo an fhmus}rfn oh Os{nþn os}î dnr$cnmn {jr an muroyn mo an crfsfs v an euor}o jrfoh}ncfóhmo huos}rns od{rosns na dorcnmj fh}orfjr! aj ~uoroeaoin ans mfefcua}nmos mo huos}rn fhmus}rfn {nrn dnh$}ohorso cjd{o}f}fn Cjdohynhmj {jr an {rjmuc}ff$mnm moa }rnbnij! os mocfr! an {rjmuccfóh {jr uhfmnmmo }rnbnij! oh Os{nþn su hfoa oh ajs ùa}fdjs nþjs `nsfmj duv fheorfjr na {rjdomfj op{orfdoh}nmj {jr ajs{näsos mo an yjhn ourj v cnsf an df}nm mo ajs najrosnacnhynmjs {jr Ernhcfn v Naodnhfn Nmodîs! dfoh$}rns ~uo oh Os{nþn mfc`n {rjmuc}ffmnm crocfó n uhrf}dj nhuna moa ;!</ oh oa {orfjmj 2;;;$2;;0! oarf}dj mo crocfdfoh}j oh an yjhn ourj euo moa 2/! oh Naodnhfn moa 2!=/ v oh Ernhcfn moa 2!?/ Os}o bnijcrocfdfoh}j roeaoin an os{ocfnafyncfóh mo huos}rj }oif$mj {rjmuc}fj oh nc}ffmnmos duv fh}ohsfns oh }rn$bnij v mo bnij najr nþnmfmj (lrîefcj >& Hj jbs}nh$}o! `nv ~uo rosna}nr oa `oc`j mo ~uo os}o fhmfcnmjr`n op{orfdoh}nmj uhn aoo doijrän oh 2;;6 v 2;>;!nacnhynhmj oh os}o ùa}fdj nþj uhn }nsn mo nrfn$cfóh fh}ornhuna moa 2!2/ sfdfanr n an mo an yjhn ourjSf n os}o mn}j so nþnmo oa roan}fj n ~uo oa crocf$dfoh}j mo an {rjmuc}ffmnm cjhiuh}n mo ajs enc}jros(usj cjhiuh}j mo ajs enc}jros mo {rjmuccfóh& oh oalajbna mo an ocjhjdän oh Os{nþn oh oa {orfjmj2;;;$2;;0 `n sfmj huaj! so {jho oh ofmohcfn anhocosfmnm mo ~uo huos}rj soc}jr fhmus}rfna fhcro$doh}o su {rjmuc}ffmnm {nrn {jmor sor dîs cjd${o}f}fj rojrfoh}nhmj! oh an domfmn mo aj {jsfbao! an{rjmuccfóh `ncfn nc}ffmnmos mo dnvjr cjh}ohfmj}ochjaólfcj v dnvjr najr nþnmfmjOs}o nhîafsfs mo an {rjmuc}ffmnm so ohcuoh}rn fhcjd${ao}j! sf hj so `nco roeorohcfn n ajs cjs}os ~uo os}îh mf$roc}ndoh}o nsjcfnmjs n ajs {rjcosjs {rjmuc}fjs mohuos}rn fhmus}rfn! cjdj sjh ajs cjs}os anbjrnaos! ajs cjs$}os ohorlæ}fcjs v! oh dohjr domfmn! ajs cjs}os ajläs}f$cjs Huos}rjs cjs}os anbjrnaos uhf}nrfjs `nh crocfmj n uhrf}dj domfj nhuna moa 2!0/ eroh}o na ;!5/ mo an yjhnourj oh oa {orfjmj 2;;;$2;;0! nuh~uo oh oa nþj 2;;6oa crocfdfoh}j so `n djmornmj Ajs cjs}os ohorlæ}fcjs!oh {nr}fcuanr ajs mo an ohorlän oaæc}rfcn ~uo sjh mo lrnhfd{jr}nhcfn {nrn naluhns nc}ffmnmos fhmus}rfnaos! `nhop{orfdoh}nmj uh crocfdfoh}j moa <<!>/ oh oa {orfjmj>660$2;;6 v so ohcuoh}rnh nc}unadoh}o uh >?!3/ {jrohcfdn mo an domfn mo ajs {näsos mo an yjhn ourj ({jroiod{aj! oh Naodnhfn os}o cjs}o os}î uh 2!=/ {jr ohcf$dn mo an domfn ourj{on v oh Ernhcfn uh 26!6/ {jrmobnij&! sfh cjh}nr cjh an oaonmn }nsn mo mo{ohmoh$cfn moa op}orfjr[jr ùa}fdj! oh roancfóh n ajs cjs}os ajläs}fcjs ~uo su{j$hoh oh}ro oa >;/ v oa >?/ moa cjs}o efhna mo uh {rjmuc$}j }ordfhnmj solùh os}fdncfjhos mo an Cjdfsfóh Ourj${on! }jmnän hjs ~uomn uh nd{afj dnrloh mo doijrn vn ~uo nacnhyndjs 3!53 {uh}js sjbro ? mo ncuormjcjh oa ähmfco mo mosod{oþj ajläs}fcj moa Bnhcj Duh$mfna (2;>;&Oh roancfóh cjh an cn{ncfmnm mo op{jr}ncfóh! `nv ~uo soþnanr! ~uo huos}rn fhmus}rfn {rosoh}n uhn opcosf$ n jrfoh}ncfóh na dorcnmj fh}orhj! aj ~uo {uomo os}nrop{afcnmj oh {nr}o {jr oa euor}o mfhndfsdj mo an mo$dnhmn fh}orhn oh an ùa}fdn mæcnmn Huos}rn fh}ohsf$mnm op{jr}nmjrn os duv fheorfjr na {rjdomfj mo ajs {nä$sos mo an yjhn ourj! sf}uncfóh ~uo so `n fmj fhcrodoh$}nhmj oh oa {orfjmj >66?$2;;6 (lrîefcj 2&! v so cjh$coh}rn euhmndoh}nadoh}o oh oa dorcnmj ourj{ojcjh oa <?/ mo ans op{jr}ncfjhos oh 2;;6 Sfh mumn! sfh
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