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11/10/2012

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Exercise 2Human Engineering
I. Overview
Human Engineering talks about how a certain measurement affectsone’s performance towards the workplace and so as to the schoolactivities. How does it affect us? Of course, just by simplymeasuring what an activity told us to do so with proper proceduresand processes for us to get the accurate result of our performanceand to know whether we are productive enough or not.
II. Objective
To differentiate each body measurements/dimensions and its effects towork and productivity.
To know the importance of the different body dimensions in designingfacilities, equipment and in the workplace,
to be able to understand how human engineering works
III. Procedure
Each group needs to bring their own tape measure
Use comfortable clothes.
For uniformity, “inches” will be used as a unit of measurement
Measure each group members body dimensions.
Measure the height, eyelevel, elbow height, maximum height of control, minimum height of control, maximum distance of controlfrom centreline of body, Body weight, Maximum forward reach fromfront edge of bench ,Normal forward reach from the edge of bench,Minimum distance of display from eye, Maximum span of workinglevel ,Normal span of working level, Elbow height above sit, Depthof sit below work surface ,Seat length ,Seat width ,Buttocks to knee,Minimum leg room, Back of seat to front edge of work surface, Seatheight, Depth of foot rest when seated on a high chair of everygroup members.
Write the measurement on a table and get the group average.
Get the group average of other Groups, write it on a table and getthe class average

V. Analysis and Discussion
In every group there are those which are taller / bigger than the othersand for these reason they rank highest in average specifically height isinvolve. On the other hand, there are those groups who consist of small individuals (not literally small but average in height while othersare above average) that’s why they rank the lowest average.
“Persons of larger size in general appear to function better than those with smaller stature(CALLOWAY, 1982) in relation to reproduction (THOMSON, 1980), disease (REDDY
et al
., 1976),cognition (KLEIN, 1972), and work performance (SPURR, 1983; 1984). Because physical workcapacity is a function of body size (ÅSTRAND and RODAHL, 1970), i.e., the mass of muscletissue involved in the maximum effort, and muscle constitutes about 40% of the body weightand 50% of the LBM (CLARYS, MARTIN and DRINKWATER, , it is interesting to note thecorrelations between three components of body size and VO
2
max presented.”
Examples of body dimensions used in designing facilities.
Height
Height of every individual is important. In the hospitality Industry, hotels forinstance, doors are based on the height of the guests. We all know that mostof the guests especially in a deluxe /suite hotel are foreigners, and indeedtheir height is way to far from us. That’s why our doors/doorway is made onthe people coming in and out of the hotel. You cannot make small doors fittedfor average height persons if your guests are very much taller. The front desk s also in hotels are based on height of human. The desk shouldnot be taller than the one using it; it should be appropriate so the front deskclerk would be more productive and would not so helpless that she could noteven reach it.Depth of sit below work surface ,Seat length ,Seat width
When a person leans into the chair back, there is both a backward and adownward force. The downward force pushes the bottom of the pelvisforward. Eventually, the sitter finds himself sitting on his tailbone at the edgeof the chair with the spine as a whole transformed into a C-shaped slouch. Of course the next step is to pick oneself up and lean back into the chair again. This only starts the whole process over again. ‘Sitting up straight’ has to beforced, and is probably worse than the slouch, in hospitality industry chairshas a vital role for workers to increase productivity and the body dimensionshas a great effect on it. The answer lies in re-educating the body to move theway it was designed. Simply by using the body properly, the muscles aretoned and ‘autonomous’ sitting can be regainedApplying Ergonomic Principles in the Workplace:How the Alexander Technique can Helpby Holly A. SweeneyAs early as the 18th century, doctors noticed that workers whose jobs required themto maintain certain body positions for long periods of time developedmusculoskeletal problems. In the last 20 years, research has clearly established theconnection between certain job tasks and repetitive stress injuries, or RSI’s.

Two elements are at work here: “static work” and “force.”“Static work” refers to the musculoskeletal effort required to hold a certain position,even a comfortable one.
For example, when we sit and work at computers, keeping our head and torsoupright requires either small or great amounts of static work depending uponthe efficiency of the body positions we choose.“Force” refers to the amount of tension our muscles generate. For example, tiltingyour head forward or backward from a neutral, vertical position quadruples theamount of force acting on your lower neck vertebra. This increase of force is due tothe increase in muscular tension necessary to support your head in a tilted position. The term “ergonomics” is derived from two Greek words: “erg,” meaning work and“nomoi,” meaning natural laws. Ergonomists study human capabilities inrelationship to work demands. In recent years, ergonomists have attempted todefine postures which minimize unnecessary static work and reduce the forcesacting on the body. All of us could significantly reduce our risk of injury if we couldadhere to the following ergonomic principles:1. All work activities should permit the worker to adopt several different, but equallyhealthy and.safe postures2. Where muscular force has to be exerted it should be done by the largestappropriate muscle groups available.3. Work activities should be performed with the joints at about mid-point of theirrange of movement. This applies particularly to the head, trunk, and upper limbs.(Cortlett, 1983)Here, however, we arrive at a problem: In order to put these recommendations intopractice, a person would have to be a skilled observer of his or her own joint andmuscle functioning and would have to be able to change his or her posture to ahealthier one at will. No one develops this sort of highly refined sensory awarenesswithout special training. Therefore, in order to derive the benefits of ergonomicresearch, we must learn how to observe our bodies in a new way.One training program that cultivates these skills is the Alexander Technique, whichenables its students to put ergonomic principles into practice, and thus helps themreduce their risk of developing an RSI. The Alexander Technique is not new. It was developed in the early 20th centurybefore ergonomics became a recognized science and has been applied throughoutthis century by people from all walks of life. The Technique is an educational methodwhich shows people how they are misusing their bodies and how their everydayhabits of work can be harmful. It also teaches people how to avoid work habitswhich create excessive amounts of static work and how to reduce the amount of unnecessary muscular force they are applying to their bodies.Performing artists comprise one occupational group which has studied theAlexander Technique extensively. This group of workers is extremely aware of thepotential for serious injury as a result of repetitious demands on the body. Typically,the work demands of performing artists require hours of daily practice and rehearsal