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A short research paper on the development of Pakistan's nuclear program

A short research paper on the development of Pakistan's nuclear program

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Published by akky22320
Although it must be noted that this was written in 2001, and some information might have changed over time.
Although it must be noted that this was written in 2001, and some information might have changed over time.

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Published by: akky22320 on Dec 18, 2008
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Development of theNuclear Power Industry inPakistan
 Adeel KhanHST 701History of Science and DevelopmentRyerson UniversityJune 7, 2001
Adeel Khan Ryerson University June 2001
 Since the first energy crisis hit the world in 1973, there has been a desperatesearch for finding a solution to the problem. The developed countries have a betterinfrastructure and a more stable economic environment for nuclear powerestablishment then the developing nations. They are also mostly in a entangled inpolitical disorder, corruption, financial turmoil or simply, all of them.The idea for the development of nuclear technology in Pakistan originated inthe 1950s,
and to date has been able to develop two commercial nuclear powerplants along with several other nuclear-related sites. In this paper, all the detailsregarding the development of the nuclear industry in Pakistan will be put forth.
The need for Nuclear Technology
 After Pakistan lost East Pakistan (which is now Bangladesh) in a war in 1971,it also lost the perceived right to be considered India’s equal from the militaryviewpoint. The 1974 Indian nuclear tests further disturbed the equation. With twobitter wars against India, a third one could not be ruled out.
An acute shortage of energy also compounded to the problem. Pakistan more frequently resorted to loadshedding (withholding electric power for specific periods of time). Simultaneously, itsmajor source of energy – the natural gas – was seriously depleted by excessive use,while the rate of energy consumption increased by 15% per annum. Thus, they hadall the many reasons for the development of nuclear technology.
Shahid Burki, Pakistan – Fifty Years of Nationhood (Colorado: Westview Press, 1999), p.207
Adeel Khan Ryerson University June 2001
1955 – 1965: The origins of Nuclear establishment
In 1955, a scientists committee was set up by the government to prepare acomprehensive nuclear energy scheme followed by the formation of a high-poweredPakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) in 1956. It comprised of the followingmembers: Nazir Ahmed (Chairman), M. Raziuddin Siddiqui (Member in charge of planning and research), Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, M.O. Ghani and M.H. Toosi.
NazirAhmed was an experimental physicist who worked at the Cavendish Laboratoryunder Ernest Rutherford. M. Siddiqui is a mathematical physicist who had beentaught by the likes of some great scientists namely, Albert Einstein, Paul Dirac,Werner Heisenberg, etc. So there were some intelligent minds to power the Pakistanicampaign for nuclear production.In the first ten years of its inception, PAEC was devoted to the task of givingindividuals adequate training and expertise in the usage of sophisticated equipment.Several hundred scientists and engineers were carefully selected and sent toHarewell in the United Kingdom, and the Argonne, Oakridge, and Brookhaven fin theUnited States, for training under the Atoms for Peace program and other suchbilateral arrangements.
 After five years, PAEC acquired a research reactor with a power of 5 MW andit was installed in Islamabad.
The Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science andTechnology (PINSTECH) was built around the reactor. Since then, it has been used tofor the purpose of training, research, and radioisotope production since then. Theinstitute also set Radiation Centers in Islamabad, Karachi, and Lahore among others.In 1961, Abdus Salam, a physicist and Nobel Laureate for his works in the
James Katz and Onkar Marwah, Nuclear Power in Developing Countries (Toronto and Lexington:Lexington Press, 1982), p.263
Ibid., p.263
Daniel Poneman, Nuclear Power in the Developing World (London: George Allen and Unwin PublishersLtd., 1982), p.40

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