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Towards a reconstruction of the history of Quechuan–Aymaran interaction

Towards a reconstruction of the history of Quechuan–Aymaran interaction

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Published by Marcos Lukaña
Modeling convergence: Towards a reconstruction of the history of Quechuan & Aymaran interaction,
* Willem Adelaar (2011) About the origen of Quechua, and its relation with Aymara.
Modeling convergence: Towards a reconstruction of the history of Quechuan & Aymaran interaction,
* Willem Adelaar (2011) About the origen of Quechua, and its relation with Aymara.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Marcos Lukaña on Apr 25, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/13/2014

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In`mlgkf cnkumrfmkcm? Pnvar`s a rmcnkspr}cpgnk ne phm hgspnrw ne Q}mch}ak–Awiarak gkpmracpgnk
¦
Vgllmi E+H+ A`mlaar/
Lmg`mk ]kgumrsgpw Cmkprm enr Lgkf}gspgcs, Z+N+ Bnx 7=1=, 23:: RA Lmg`mk, Phm Kmphmrlak`s
1+ Gkprn`}cpgnk
Q}mch}ak
ak`
Awiarak
, phm pvn iagk s}rugugkf gk`gfmkn}s lakf}afm eaiglgms ne phm Ig``lm Ak`mak rmfgnk,
1
shnv akgizrmssgum ain}kp ne `mpaglm` sgiglargpgms ap phm zhnknlnfgcal ak` spr}cp}ral lmumls, as vmll as gk phmgr lmxgcnk+ Phmsmsgiglargpgms haum phm characpmr ne kmar cngkcg`mkcms ak` arm knp swspmiapgcallw sharm` vgph akw ne phm nphmr lakf}afmsappmspm` gk phm saim rmfgnk+ Bw cnkprasp, phm hgfhlw `gspgkcpgum zhnknpacpgcs ne Awiarak ak` phm eacp phap, azarp erni as}bspakpgalain}kpnesharm`lmxgcnk,phmlmxgcalgkumkpnrgmsnephmpvnlakf}afmeaiglgmsarmra`gcallw`geemrmkp,s}ffmspphapQ}mch}ak ak` Awiarak arm bw kn imaks clnsmlw rmlapm` erni a fmkmpgc zngkp ne ugmv, ge phmw shn}l` bm rmlapm` ap all+ Phgsazzarmkplwcnkpra`gcpnrwsgp}apgnknesgiglargpwak``geemrmkcmzngkpspna}kgq}mpwzmnehgspnrgcalgkpmracpgnk}k`mrfnkmbwphm pvn lakf}afm eaiglgms gk q}mspgnk, vhgch calls enr a `mpaglm` gkumspgfapgnk+Alphn}fh bnph lakf}afm frn}zs, Q}mch}ak gk zarpgc}lar, arm nepmk rmemrrm` pn as sgkflm lakf}afms (
Q}mch}a
,
Awiara
', gp gsinrm azzrnzrgapm pn prmap phmi as lakf}afm eaiglgms+ Hmkcm n}r }sm ne phm mk`gkf
)ak
, c}spniarw gk hgspnrgcal lgkf}gspgcs+
2
Phm Q}mch}ak eaiglw gs s}b`gug`m` gkpn a larfm k}ibmr ne `galmcps, vhgch arm nepmk i}p}allw }kgkpmllgfgblm (ce+PnrmrnEmrka°k`m `m Cn°r`nua, 1760'+ Phm rmlapgnks phap mxgsp bmpvmmk phmsm `galmcps zarplw mxhgbgp phm characpmrgspgcs ne a
A R P G C L M G K E N
 Arpgclm hgspnrw?
Rmcmgum` 23 Azrgl 2:1:
Rmcmgum` gk rmugsm` enri 5 Ncpnbmr 2:11
Accmzpm` 1= Ncpnbmr 2:11
Auaglablm nklgkm 21 Knumibmr 2:11
Dmwvnr`s?
Ig``lm Ak`msAwiarakCnkumrfmkcmI}lpglgkf}algsiZrnpn)lakf}afmsQ}mch}akS}bsprapm
A B S P R A C P
Phm spr}cp}ral ak` lmxgcal sgiglargpgms phap }kgpm phm Awiarak ak` Q}mch}ak lakf}afmeaiglgmsnephmAk`mak rmfgnk pn`aw armfmkmrallw apprgb}pm`pncnkumrfmkcm+Phm Awiarakak` Q}mch}ak zrnpn)lakf}afms arnsm erni ak gkgpgal enriapgum zhasm gk phgs zrncmss ne cnkumrfmkcm, enllnvgkf phm firsp cnkpacp bmpvmmk phm pvn lgkf}gspgc lgkmafms+ Aepmr phgsenriapgum zmrgn`, zrms}iablw characpmrgm` bw vg`mszrma` i}lpglgkf}algsi, phm pvnlgkmafms smzarapm` afagk ak` bmfak phmgr nvk hgspnrgms ne `gumrsgficapgnk as lakf}afmeaiglgms+ Kmumrphmlmss, phm szmadmrs ne phm lakf}afms bmlnkfgkf pn bnph eaiglgms rmiagkm`clnsmlwcnkkmcpm`bwdgkshgzpgmsak`sncgalnrfakgapgnk,vhgchiawhaumallnvm`phmipncnkq}mr ak` ncc}zw mxpmksgum kmv pmrrgpnrgms gk a cnkcmrpm` vaw+ S}ch a ongkp mkpmrzrgsmi}sp haum padmk zlacm gk a i}lpglgkf}al smppgkf as cak spgll bm nbsmrum` gk n}plwgkf armasvhmrm Awiarak ak` Q}mch}ak lakf}afms cnmxgsp vgphgk cnii}kgpgms+
Þ
2:11 Mlsmugmr B+U+ All rgfhps rmsmrum`+
¦
Akmarlgmrumrsgnknephgszazmrvaszrmsmkpm`apphmUGGZ]CZArchamnlnfwSwiznsg}i,nrfakgm`gkLgiagkA}f}sp2::7vgphphms}zznrpnephmBrgpgshAca`miw ak` phm Znkpgficga ]kgumrsg`a` Capn°lgca `ml Zmr}°+/ Pml+? 31 61 =26 2=114 eax? 31 61 =26 15=:+
M)iagl a``rmssms?
1
Phm Ig``lmAk`mak rmfgnk as `mfikm`hmrm rn}fhlw cngkcg`ms vgph phm mizgrmne phm Gkcas ap gps frmapmsp mxzaksgnk, bmenrm phmSzakgsh cnkq}msp, vhgchncc}rrm` gk 1=32–1=30+
2
Mxcmzp vhmk rmemrrgkf pn gk`gug`}al uargmpgms nr pn phm (zrm)'zrnpn)lakf}afms, vhmrm vm zrmemr spak`ar`gm` mxzrmssgnks s}ch as Zrnpn)Q}mch}a ak`Zrm)Zrnpn)Q}mch}a, ak` bw mxpmksgnk alsn Zrnpn)Awiara ak` Zrm)Zrnpn)Awiara+
Cnkpmkps lgsps auaglablm apScgUmrsm Scgmkcm@grmcp
Lgkf}a
::20)3801.$ – smm ernkp iappmr
Þ
2:11 Mlsmugmr B+U+ All rgfhps rmsmrum`+`ng?1:+1:15.o+lgkf}a+2:11+1:+::1
 
fmkmalnfgcal prmm spr}cp}rm ak` zarplw phnsm ne a `galmcp chagk, as `mfikm` bwDa}eiak (177:?57–6:'+ Phm Awiarak eaiglw
3
cnksgsps ne Awiara ak` gps sgspmr lakf}afm Oaqar}–Davdg,
0
as vmll as a k}ibmr ne barmlw appmspm` mxpgkcp uargmpgms+Phm hgspnrgcal rmlapgnkshgz bmpvmmk Q}mch}ak ak` Awiarak has mkfafm` phm appmkpgnk ne igssgnkargms, lgkf}gsps ak`nphmr schnlarlw nbsmrumrs sgkcm phm 16ph cmkp}rw (
gkpmr algg
,Cnbn T15=3Y 17=5 (Unl}im GG, Bnnd XG, Chazpmr GX, 27,cgpm` gk Cmrrn°k)Zalnigkn, 2::8?2='4]hlm T171:Y 1757?0=–=:4 Caizbmll, 177=4 enr ak numrugmv smmCmrrn °k)Zalnigkn, 2::8?2=–25'+Phm `gsc}ssgnk has nepmk bmmk karrnvm` `nvk pn nkm cmkpral q}mspgnk? Arm Q}mch}ak ak` Awiarak fmkmpgcallw rmlapm` nrknp>Mumk}kpglrmcmkppgims,schnlarsneAk`maklakf}afmshaumbmmk`gug`m`gkpnpvncaizs,phnsmvhns}zznrpphmg`mane a cniink nrgfgk enr phm pvn lakf}afm frn}zs ak` phnsm vhn rmomcp s}ch a hwznphmsgs gk eaunr ne a zrncmss ne cnkumrfmkcmphrn}fh gkpmksgum bnrrnvgkf ak` cnkpacp+ Hnvmumr, phm mxcl}sgum chngcm bmpvmmk phm nzpgnks ne 
fmkmpgc rmlapgnkshgz
ak`
cnkumrfmkcm
has zrnumk pn bm }kzrn`}cpgum+ All snrps ne auaglablm mug`mkcm arm gk`gcapgum ne a zrncmss ne cnkumrfmkcm phapzmrimapmsphmhgspnrwak``mfikmsphmi}p}alrmlapgnkshgznephmQ}mch}akak`Awiarakeaiglgmsgkiakwrmszmcps+Phmrmgsa frnvgkf cnksmks}s phap phm sharm` mlmimkps }kgpgkf phm pvn lakf}afm eaiglgms cak bm mxzlagkm` phrn}fh cnkumrfmkcm bwcnkpacp, raphmr phak phrn}fh spragfhpenrvar` fmkmpgc rmlapm`kmss (A`mlaar, 17854 Cmrrn°k)Zalnigkn, 1786?3=1–36=4PnrmrnEmrka°k`m `m Cn°r`nua, 17784 A`mlaar ak` I}wsdmk, 2::0?30–35'+ Phm gkpmksgpw ak` phm lnkfmugpw ne phm bglapmral `gee}sgnkphap characpmrgms phm rmlapgnkshgz bmpvmmk Q}mch}ak ak` Awiarak lgm ap phm basgs ne nkm ne phm insp cnksmq}mkpgalgkspakcms ne lakf}afm cnkpacp gk phm hgspnrw ne phm vnrl`‗s lakf}afms+ Ap phm saim pgim, nkm has pn acdknvlm`fm phap phmznssgbglgpw ne a rminpm cniink sn}rcm enr Q}mch}ak ak` Awiarak cakknp bm `gscar`m` mkpgrmlw+ Hnvmumr, s}ch a z}papgumrmlapgnkshgz p}rks n}p har` pn zrnum vgph phm zrmsmkp spapm ne n}r dknvlm`fm, ak` gp vn}l` zrnbablw gkunlum a k}ibmr ne nphmr Aimrgk`gak lakf}afm eaiglgms as vmll+
=
A rmcnkspr}cpgnk ne Q}mch}ak–Awiarak cnkpacp hgspnrw i}sp bm basm` nk lgkf}gspgc mug`mkcm+ Nbsmruapgnks gk hgspnrgcal`nc}imkpsarmpadmkgkpncnksg`mrapgnkaslnkfasphmw`nknpcnkpra`gcpphmlgkf}gspgceacpsmspablgshm`bwphmgkumspgfapgnkne szndmknr `nc}imkpm`lakf}afm uargmpgms+ Phm saim rmsprgcpgnkhnl`s,a enrpgnrg,enrphmrms}lps ne archamnlnfgcalrmsmarch+Nklwvhmkphmznpmkpgalnelgkf}gspgcrmsmarchhasbmmkmxzlngpm`pngpse}llmxpmkp,shn}l`phmn}pcnimnegpbmiapchm`vgphrms}lps zrnug`m` bw nphmr `gscgzlgkms+
2+ Phm kap}rm ne phm sgiglargpgms
Bmenrm zrncmm`gkf pn a flnbal rmcnkspr}cpgum numrugmv ne Q}mch}ak–Awiarak cnkumrfmkcm, gp gs kmcmssarw pn `rav akgkumkpnrw ne phm iagk sgiglargpgms phap lgkd phm pvn lakf}afm frn}zs, alnkf vgph phm `geemrmkcms phap smzarapm phmi+ Enr a`mpaglm`accn}kpnephmk}imrn}sspr}cp}ralzarallmlgsisphapcakbmnbsmrum`bmpvmmkphmpvnlakf}afmfrn}zsvmrmemrpnCmrrn°k)Zalnigkn (2::8'+ Bnph phm Q}mch}ak ak` Awiarak eaiglgms cnksgsp ne lakf}afms phap arm zrm`nigkakplw SNU vgph aknigkapgum)acc}sapgum algfkimkp ak` a prakszarmkp, hgfhlw rmf}lar inrzhnlnfgcal spr}cp}rm basm` nk affl}pgkapgums}efixapgnk+ Azarp erni s}efixapgnk ak`, ap lmasp gk Q}mch}ak, snim rnnp rm`}zlgcapgnk, unvml in`gficapgnks s}ch aslmkfphmkgkfzlawarnlmgkinrzhnlnfwasvmll,b}pknpgkalluargmpgmsnephmpvnlakf}afmeaiglgms+VhmrmasAwiarakumrbalinrzhnlnfw cn`gfims a larfmr ain}kp ne capmfnrgms phak Q}mch}ak umrbal inrzhnlnfw `nms, phmrm gs a frmap `mal ne `mpaglm`smiakpgc ak` zrafiapgc cngkcg`mkcm gk phm arma ne inrzhnswkpax+ Bw cnkprasp, swspmiapgc enrial cngkcg`mkcms bmpvmmkQ}mch}ak ak` Awiarak fraiiapgcal inrzhmims arm scarcm+Phmrm arm alsn snim sgfkgficakp inrzhnswkpacpgc`geemrmkcms+Q}mch}ak has a vmll`mumlnzm` svgpch)rmemrmkcmswspmi gks}bnr`gkapmcla}sms,vhmrmasphmAwiarasvgpch)rmemrmkcmswspmigsgkcnizlmpm+NephmpvnAwiaraklakf}afmsnklwOaqar}}smsa svgpch)rmemrmkcmzara`gfivgphae}llsmpnecrnss)rmemrmkpgalzmrsnk iardmrs(Har`iak,2:::?61–6='+ Q}mch}akhasinrmcasmiardmrsak`inrmknigkalggkfaefixmsphakAwiarak+Phmcnibgkapgnkneknigkalgapgnkak`casmaccn}kpsenralarfmr k}ibmr ne cnizlmx smkpmkcm pwzms gk Q}mch}ak+ Gk umrbal inrzhnlnfw, phm sgp}apgnk gs phm nzznsgpm+ Q}mch}ak hasemvmr umrbal aefixms phak Awiarak, ak` phmsm arm nepmk i}lpge}kcpgnkal+ Awiarak umrbal inrzhnlnfw gs zarpgc}larlw rgch gkphmmxzrmssgnkneszapgalcapmfnrgms+Umrbalggkfzrncmssms(‘pnbm‗,‘pnbmap‗,‘pnbmlnkfpn‗'zlawarnlmgkAwiarakgkflmcpgnkalinrzhnlnfw, b}p knp gk Q}mch}ak, vhgch }sms cnkspr}cpgnks cnkpagkgkf phm umrb
da)
‘pn bm‗+ Hnvmumr, as has bmmk zrnznsm`bwCmrrn°k)Zalnigkn (2::8?2::–2:1', phm umrbalggkf zrncmssms ne Awiarak iaw haum bmmk `mrgum` erni a lmxgcallwgk`mzmk`mkpumrb,znssgblw
da)
asgkQ}mch}a+Laspb}pknplmasp,mug`mkpgalgpwgscn`gfim`gkphmAwiaraumrb(Har`iakmpal+,1788?1==–1=8',vhmrmasQ}mch}akmug`mkpgalcapmfnrgmsarmgk`gcapm`bwclgpgcs+
5
Almsspakfgblm`geemrmkcmbmpvmmkphmpvnlakf}afm frn}zs iakgemsps gpsmle gk phm cn`gficapgnk ne zmrsnkal rmemrmkcm+ Phm sn)callm` ‘praksgpgnkal‗ mk`gkfs, vhgch szmcgewphm fraiiapgcal zmrsnk ne bnph a s}bomcp ak` ak nbomcp, zrnug`m` phap phm lappmr gs a szmmch)acp zarpgcgzakp, arm inrmswkphmpgcgkcniznsgpgnkgkAwiarakphakgkQ}mch}ak+PhmAwiarakmk`gkfsazzmarpnbmrmlapgumlwnl`,vhmrmasQ}mch}ak}sms a hwbrg` swspmi phap mizlnws cnibgkapgnks ne mlmimkps gk `mrgum` e}kcpgnks ak` smmis pn bm ne a rmlapgumlw rmcmkpcngkafm(A`mlaar,2::7'+GkinspuargmpgmsneQ}mch}ak,praksgpgnkalmk`gkfscakalsnncc}rgkknigkalgm`umrbs,vhgchgsknpznssgblm gk Awiarak+ A en}r)zmrsnk swspmi cnksgspgkf ne 1sp, 2k`, 3r` zmrsnk ak` ak gkcl}sgum 1sp zmrsnk zl}ral gs sharm` bwphm pvn eaiglgms, b}p Awiarak has }kmq}guncal inrzhmims pn mxzrmss phm gkcl}sgum capmfnrw, vhmrmas Q}mch}ak rmlgms nk
3
Phm Awiarak eaiglw gs alsn dknvk as
Ar}
Oaqg
(Har`iak, 1768'+ Enr arf}imkps gk s}zznrp ne n}rzrmemrmkcm enr phm pmri
Awiarak
0
 Oaqar} ak` Davdg arm prmapm` as smzarapm lakf}afms bwHar`iak (1768'+ Inrm rmcmkp rmsmarch s}ffmsps phap phmw `n knp `geemr bmwnk` phm `galmcp lmuml(Cmrrn°k)Zalnigkn, 2:::?53–5='+
=
Caizbmll (177='gs nkm ne phm rarm (gkcnkcl}sgum' appmizps pn `gscnumr s}ch a rmlapgnkshgz vgphn}p rmsnrpgkf pn nbugn}s casms ne bnrrnvgkf+
5
Phm Oaqar}–Davdg lakf}afm smmis pn enllnv phm Q}mch}ak zracpgcm, sn phgs iaw knp bm a `gspgkcpgum crgpmrgnk+
V+E+H+ A`mlaar.Lgkf}a 122 (2:12' 051–057
052
 
mlmimkpsphapazzmarpnhaumacniznsgpmnrgfgk(gkzarpgc}lar,phmgkcl}sgum1spzmrsnks}bomcpak`znssmssnriardmr
)kc ˆ gd
'+
6
Gp s}ffmsps phap Q}mch}ak iaw haum a`nzpm` ak Awiarak in`ml bw rmassgfkgkf mlmimkps erni gps nvk nrgfgkal inrzhmigcgkumkpnrw pn bnrrnvm` e}kcpgnks+Erni a zhnknlnfgcal zngkp ne ugmv, Q}mch}ak ak` Awiarak arm rmiardablw sgiglar, a eacp phap gs bmsp azzrmcgapm` vhmkcnizargkf phm rmcnkspr}cpm` zhnkmim swspmis ne phm pvn lakf}afm frn}zs (enr Awiarak smmCmrrn°k)Zalnigkn, 2:::?1184enr Q}mch}ak smmA`mlaar ak` I}wsdmk, 2::0?175'+ Vhmk lnndgkf bacd ap phm spafm ne phm zrnpn)lakf}afms, phm zhnkmimgkumkpnrgms ne phm pvn lakf}afm frn}zs azzmar pn cngkcg`m gk insp rmszmcps, gkcl}`gkf gk s}ch hgfhlw iardm` emap}rms as aphrmm)unvmlswspmi,acnkpraspneumlarak`}u}larspnzs,ak`acnkpraspnermprnflmxak`zalapalaeergcapms+Phmiagk`geemrmkcmbmpvmmk phm rmcnkspr}cpm` sn}k` swspmis ne Zrnpn)Q}mch}a ak` Zrnpn)Awiara cnksgsps gk phm mxgspmkcm ne flnppalgm` ak`aszgrapm` cnksnkakps gk phm lappmr+ Phm }sm ne flnppalgm` ak` aszgrapm` cnksnkakps has szrma` gkpn phm kapgum gkhmrgpm` rnnplmxgcnk ne Q}mch}ak uargmpgms vhnsm lgkf}gspgc armas arm cnkpgkfmkp vgph phm pmrrgpnrw ne phm zrmsmkp)`aw Awiara lakf}afm(Pnrmrn Emrka°k`m `m Cn°r`nua, 1760?3=4Cmrrn°k)Zalnigkn, 1786?1174Iakkhmgi, 1771?=3–=8, 166–18:'+ Phmw gkcl}`m C}cn ak` Z}kn Q}mch}a, as vmll as phm Bnlgugak `galmcps ne Q}mch}ak+
8
Phm fmnfrazhgcal `gsprgb}pgnk ne flnppalgapgnk ak`aszgrapgnk vgphgk phm Q}mch}ak rnnp gkumkpnrw gs knp alvaws cnksgspmkp+
7
Flnppalgapgnk, ak` pn a lmssmr mxpmkp, aszgrapgnkazzmar pn rmzrmsmkp armal emap}rms phap arm alsn en}k` gk a k}ibmr ne nphmr lakf}afms ne phm sn}ph)cmkpral Ak`ms, s}ch asApacaimk˜n, Callah}awa, Lmcn ak` ]r})Chgzawa, vhgch arm knv zarplw mxpgkcp+
A umrw cnkszgc}n}s `geemrmkcm bmpvmmk Q}mch}ak ak` Awiarak rmsg`ms gk phm hgfhlw }k}s}al zhnknpacpgcs ak`inrzhnzhnkmigcbmhaugn}rnephmlappmrlakf}afmfrn}z+Awiarakkn}krnnpsi}spmk`gkaunvml,snrnnpsbnrrnvm`erninphmr lakf}afms arm a}fimkpm` vgph a fikal unvml ge phmw `n knp alrma`w haum nkm+ Vgphgk Awiarak rnnps nzmk swllablms arm`nigkakp,
b}pphmunvmlsnernnpsak`aefixmsarms}bomcppns}zzrmssgnkr}lmsphapazzmarpnbmarbgprarwgkphapphmwlacdaswkchrnkgc zhnknlnfgcal inpguapgnk+ As a rms}lp, Awiarak vnr` enris iaw cnkpagk cl}spmrs ne as iakw as sgx cnksnkakps+Phmsm emap}rms arm en}k` vgph cnksg`mrablm uargapgnk gk bnph Awiarak lakf}afms b}p arm absmkp erni Q}mch}ak, alphn}fh avapmrm`)`nvkumrsgnknephms}zzrmssgnkr}lmsaccnizakwgkfbnrrnvm`umrbalaefixmsgsen}k`gk`galmcpshmauglwgkfl}mkcm`bw Awiara, s}ch as Z}kn Q}mch}a (A`mlaar, 1786'+Ap phm lmxgcal lmuml, Q}mch}ak ak` Awiarak sharm a s}bspakpgal ain}kp ne uncab}larw phap hards bacd pn phm spafm ne phmzrnpn)lakf}afms, gk a``gpgnk pn k}imrn}s lnaks phap cak bm apprgb}pm` pn lapmr spafms ne cnkpacp+ Azzrnxgiapmlw 2:- ne phmlmxgcalgpmisphapcakbmrmcnkspr}cpm`enrbnphlakf}afmfrn}zsarmg`mkpgcalnrkmarlwg`mkpgcalgkenri+Phgssharm`lmxgcnkgkcl}`msgpmis zmrpagkgkfpn basgcuncab}larw,s}chas
kgka
‘firm‗,
varig
‘vniak‗ak`
aza)
‘pncarrw‗+ Hnvmumr,phmk}ibmrne sharm` gpmis gs knp knpgcmablw hgfhmr gk basgc phak gk knk)basgc uncab}larw, as igfhp bm mxzmcpm` pn bm phm casm ge phmlakf}afms vmrm fmkmpgcallw rmlapm` (Cmrrn°k)Zalnigkn, 1786?363, 2:::?3134 Hmffarpw, 2::=?31–36'+
3+ In`mlgkf phm cnkcmzp ne cnkumrfmkcm
Nkfirspphn}fhps,gpiawazzmarappracpgumpnugmvcnkumrfmkcmasphmnzznsgpmne 
`gumrfmkcm
,phmzrncmssne`geemrmkpgapgnkphap aeemcps pvn mkpgpgms munlugkf erni a cniink sn}rcm aepmr ak gkgpgal smzarapgnk+ Lakf}afms phap `mumlnz erni a cniinksn}rcm, ug+ a zrnpn)lakf}afm, pmk` pn `gumrfm fra`}allw ak` swspmiapgcallw numr pgim, a zrncmss phap cak bm `m`}cm` ernizrm`nigkakplw rmf}lar sn}k` cnrrmsznk`mkcms phap mxgsp bmpvmmk phm rms}lpgkf `a}fhpmr lakf}afms+ Bw cnkprasp,cnkumrfmkcm spak`s enr phm abspracpgnk ne ak arpgc}lapm` zrncmss phap kmm` knp bm fra`}al ak` swspmiapgc ap all+ Mzgsn`ms ne cnkpacp)gk`}cm` chakfm cak bm enllnvm` bw zmrgn`s ne giinbglgpw nr rmkmvm` smzarapgnk+ A zrncmss ne cnkumrfmkcm iaw bmgkpmrr}zpm` bw zmrgn`s ne `gumrfmkcm+ @gspgkcp lakf}afms arm knp a}pniapgcallw `ravk gkpn cnkumrfmkcm as snnk as phmw fmpgkpn cnkpacp vgph mach nphmr+ A vg`m arraw ne mxpmrkal eacpnrs, vhgch iaw bm `minfrazhgcal, znlgpgcal, sncgnlgkf}gspgc, mpc+,zlawarnlm gkphmvawlakf}afmsgkfl}mkcmnrrmzlacmmachnphmr+Gkphmcasmne phmmarlgmsp rmcnumrablmrmzrmsmkpapgumsnephmQ}mch}ak ak` Awiarak lgkmafms,
Zrnpn)Q}mch}a
ak`
Zrnpn)Awiara
, phmsm mxpmrkal eacpnrs rmiagk larfmlw }kdknvk+Akw appmizp pn akalwm cnkumrfmkcm gk rmlapgnk pn phm hgspnrw ne Q}mch}ak ak` Awiarak vgll mumkp}allw rmq}grm armcnkspr}cpgnk ne phm zrncmss ne cnkumrfmkcm gk all gps arpgc}lapm` spafms+ Phgs gs kmcmssarw enr a zrnzmr }k`mrspak`gkf ne phmvaw gk vhgch phm pvn lakf}afm frn}zs haum gkfl}mkcm` mach nphmr gk phm zasp+ Phm spafms ak` mumkps phap pnfmphmr iadm }zphm Q}mch}ak–Awiarak cnkumrfmkcm vgll haum pn bm lgkdm` pn szmcgfic lncapgnks gk pgim ak` szacm+ A zmc}lgargpw ne Q}mch}ak–Awiarakcnkpacphgspnrwgsphapcnkumrfmkcmncc}rrm`afagkak`afagk+Phmrmvascnkumrfmkcmapphmspafmnephmenriapgnknephmzrnpn)lakf}afmsb}palsnbmpvmmkbrakchmsnr`galmcpsnephmpvnlakf}afmfrn}zsphaphazzmkm`pnsharmazarpgc}lar fmnfrazhgcal szacm ap a zarpgc}lar zngkp ne pgim+ Vm shall rmemr pn phmsm casms ne gkcg`mkpal cnkumrfmkcm as
lncalcnkumrfmkcm
+ As vm sav bmenrm, `nc}imkpm` casms ne lncal cnkumrfmkcm gkcl}`m phm szrma` ne flnppalgm` ak` aszgrapm`nbspr}mkpsak`phmgkprn`}cpgnkneAwiaraumrbalaefixmsvgphphmgra`hmrmkpunvml)s}zzrmssgnkr}lmsgkpnszmcgficuargmpgmsne Q}mch}ak phap arm a`oacmkp pn Awiara)szmadgkf armas+ S}ch casms ne lncal `gee}sgnk ak` s}bsprapm gkfl}mkcm arm imrmlw
6
Phm saim nbsmruapgnk iaw hnl` enr phm Q}mch}ak smcnk` zmrsnk mk`gkf –
 wdg
.–
kdg
+
8
Phmzrmsmkcmneaszgrapm`spnzsak`rmflmxmsneaszgrapm`spnzsgkQ}mch}akuargmpgmsnehgfhlak`Mc}a`nriawbm`}mpnasn}phmrkZmr}ugaks}zmrsprapmgkprn`}cm` bw phm Gkca ncc}zapgnk (Pnrmrn Emrka°k`m `m Cn°r`nua, 1780?38=–3854Cmrrn°k)Zalnigkn, 1786?185–186'+
7
Iakkhmgi ak` Kmvfiml` (1782'zngkp ap phm gcnkgcgpw ne phm }sm ne flnppalgm` ak` aszgrapm` spnzs ak` aeergcapms gk Q}mch}ak+ Gp iaw umrw vmll bm phapsgiglar imchakgsis arm ap vnrd gk Awiarak+
1:
PhmcasmneOaqar}–DavdggkCmkpralZmr}(Wa}wns'gsmxcmzpgnkalgkphapgpemap}rmsflnppalgapgnkak`aszgrapgnk,alphn}fhgpgss}rrn}k`m`bwQ}mch}ak`galmcps gfknrgkf phmsm pwzms ne arpgc}lapgnk+
11
Phgs zrmemrmkcm enr nzmk swllablms gs lmss ugsgblm gk Oaqar}, sn gp gs `n}bpe}l ge phgs emap}rm cak bm apprgb}pm` pn Awiarak as a vhnlm+
V+E+H+ A`mlaar.Lgkf}a 122 (2:12' 051–057
053

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