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Pre-IB Chemistry, Semester Exam Review

Pre-IB Chemistry, Semester Exam Review

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PRE-IB CHEMISTRY (MS. SMITH) SEMESTER EXAM REVIEWJulie’s Study Guideshttp://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/1
Chapter 1: Matter and ChangeAn elementelementelementelement is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stablesubstances and is made of one type of atom. A compoundcompoundcompoundcompound is a substance that canbe broken down into simple stable substances. Each compound is made from theatoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded.A mixturemixturemixturemixture is a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its ownidentity and properties. Some mixtures are said to be homogenoushomogenoushomogenoushomogenous, which meansthey are uniform in composition (also called solutionssolutionssolutionssolutions). Other mixtures are notuniform throughout and are termed heterogeneousheterogeneousheterogeneousheterogeneous.A physical propertyphysical propertyphysical propertyphysical property is a characteristic that can be observed or measured withoutchanging the identity of the substance. These describe the substance itself, ratherthan describing how it can change into other substances. A change in substance thatdoes not involve a change in the identity of the substance is called a physicalphysicalphysicalphysicalchangechangechangechange. This includes phase changes (liquid, solid, gas).A chemical propertychemical propertychemical propertychemical property relates to a substance’s ability to undergo changes thattransform it into different substances. A change in which one or more substances areconverted into different substances is called a chemical changechemical changechemical changechemical change or chemicalchemicalchemicalchemicalreactionreactionreactionreaction.The law of conservation of energylaw of conservation of energylaw of conservation of energylaw of conservation of energy states that energy is neither destroyed norcreated.Chapter Two: Measurements and CalculationsThe SI unitsSI unitsSI unitsSI units are:Mass: kilogramsLength: meterTemperature: KelvinAmount of substance: moleTime: secondVolume: meters
3
 Energy: jouleTo determine how many significant digits are in a number, remember Ms. Smith’smemory trick of visualizing the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with respect to the UnitedStates. If a decimal is absent, start from the right and keep moving across until thereis a number that is not a 0. Any numbers left of that number (and including it) aresignificant digits. If a decimal is present, start from the left and move right until thereis a number that is not a 0. Any numbers right of that number (and including it) aresignificant digits. You can remember which direction to start from by rememberingwhere the Atlantic and Pacific are in relation to the United States.
 
PRE-IB CHEMISTRY (MS. SMITH) SEMESTER EXAM REVIEWJulie’s Study Guideshttp://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/2
When adding or subtracting with significant figures, the answer must have the samenumber of digits to the right of the decimal point as there are in the measurementhaving the fewest digits to the right of the decimal point. For example, 25.1 + 2.03must be rounded to the tenths. When multiplying or dividing, round to the numberof significant digits that are in the measurement with the fewest number ofsignificant figures. For example, 25 + 7 would be rounded so that there is 1 significantfigure in the answer.In recording numbers from instruments, remember to include one estimated digitafter the certain ones, except in cases of a digital balance.Remember to review how to safely perform lab procedures (See safety lab).Chapter Three: Atoms: The Building Blocks of MatterThe law of conservation of masslaw of conservation of masslaw of conservation of masslaw of conservation of mass states that mass is neither created nor destroyedduring ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes.John Dalton proposed an explanation for the conservation of mass, the law ofdefinite proportions, and the law of multiple proportions when he published theatomic theoryatomic theoryatomic theoryatomic theory. The Greek thinker Democritus was the first to propose the idea ofatoms. Physicist Joseph Thomson discovered electrons. Robert Millikan was able tomeasure the charge of electrons using oil drops. Ernest Rutherford bombarded a thingold foil with fast-moving particles and discovered atoms were mostly space with avery dense nucleus.An atom is composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons arelocated in the nucleus, and both have a mass number of 1. Protons have a +1 charge,and neutrons have no charge. Electrons, with a mass number of 0, are located in theelectron cloud surrounding the nucleus and have a charge of -1.The atomic numberatomic numberatomic numberatomic number of an element is the number of protons of each atom of thatelement. IsotopesIsotopesIsotopesIsotopes are atoms of the same element that have different masses. Themassmassmassmass numbernumbernumbernumber is the total number of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleusof an isotope.Formulas for Calculation:Moles = (# of particles) / (6.02
×
10
23
)# Particles = (6.02
×
10
23
) (mol)Moles = (grams) / (molar mass)Grams = (mol) (molar mass)A molemolemolemole is the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there rtomsin exactly 12 g of carbon-12. AvogadroAvogadroAvogadroAvogadro’’s numbers numbers numbers number - (6.02
×
10
23
), is the number of
 
PRE-IB CHEMISTRY (MS. SMITH) SEMESTER EXAM REVIEWJulie’s Study Guideshttp://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/3
particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance. The mass of one mole of a puresubstance is called the molar massmolar massmolar massmolar mass of that substance.Chapter Four: Arrangement of Electrons in AtomsThe Heisenburg uncertainty principleHeisenburg uncertainty principleHeisenburg uncertainty principleHeisenburg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to determinesimultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle.Quantum theory is the quantitative relationship between energy and frequency,developed by Max Planck, a German physicist. Quantum theoryQuantum theoryQuantum theoryQuantum theory describesmathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles.Quantum numbersQuantum numbersQuantum numbersQuantum numbers specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties ofelectrons in orbitals.The principal quantum numberprincipal quantum numberprincipal quantum numberprincipal quantum number, symbolized by
, indicates the main energylevel occupied by the electron. These values are positive integers. To find thenumber of electrons possible for each energy level can be found through 2
2
.The angular momentum quantumangular momentum quantumangular momentum quantumangular momentum quantum numbernumbernumbernumber, symbolized by
, indicates theshape of the orbital. For a specific main energy level, the number of orbitalshapes possible is equal to
. The quantum numbers for the possible orbitalsare
(0) sphere,
(1) dumbbell,
(2) double dumbbell,
(3) very complex.The magnetic quantum numbermagnetic quantum numbermagnetic quantum numbermagnetic quantum number indicates the orientation of an orbitalaround the nucleus. A sphere has 1 orientation possible, a dumbbell has 3orientations possible, a double dumbbell has 5 orientations possible, and an
 shaped orbital has 7 possible orientations. These values range from –
to +
l.
The spin quantum numberspin quantum numberspin quantum numberspin quantum number has only two possible values (+1/2 or -1/2), whichindicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital. A singleorbital can hold a maximum of two electrons.According to the Pauli exclusion principlePauli exclusion principlePauli exclusion principlePauli exclusion principle, no two electrons in the same atom canhave the same set of four quantum numbers. According to HundHundHundHund’’s rules rules rules rule, orbitals ofequal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by asecond electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the samespin state.***Refer back to your class notes for several examples of electron configurationnotation and orbital notation.Chapter Five: The Periodic LawJohn NewlandsJohn NewlandsJohn NewlandsJohn Newlands prepared the first periodic table with the elements arranged in orderof relative atomic masses. He pointed out the “law of octaves” whereby every eighthelement has similar properties.MenMenMenMendeleevdeleevdeleevdeleev developed periodic lawperiodic lawperiodic lawperiodic law: The physical and chemical properties of theelements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. When elements are

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