Governance Matters VI:Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators1996–2006
Daniel KaufmannAart KraayMassimo MastruzziThe World Bank
This paper reports on the latest update of the Worldwide GovernanceIndicators (WGI) research project, covering 212 countries and territories and measuringsix dimensions of governance between 1996 and 2006: Voice and Accountability,Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, RegulatoryQuality, Rule of Law, and Control of Corruption. This latest set of aggregate indicators,are based on hundreds of specific and disaggregated individual variables measuringvarious dimensions of governance, taken from 33 data sources provided by 30 differentorganizations. The data reflect the views on governance of public sector, private sectorand NGO experts, as well as thousands of citizen and firm survey respondentsworldwide. We also explicitly report the margins of error accompanying each countryestimate. These reflect the inherent difficulties in measuring governance using any kindof data. We find that even after taking margins of error into account, the WGI permitmeaningful cross-country comparisons as well as monitoring progress over time. In lessthan a decade, a substantial number of countries exhibit statistically significantimprovements in at least one dimension of governance, while other countries exhibitdeterioration in some dimensions. The decade-long aggregate indicators, together withthe disaggregated individual indicators, are available on a newly-redesigned website atwww.govindicators.org.
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4280, July 2007
The Policy Research Working Paper Series disseminates the findings of work in progress to encourage theexchange of ideas about development issues. An objective of the series is to get the findings out quickly,even if the presentations are less than fully polished. The papers carry the names of the authors and should be cited accordingly. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirelythose of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the view of the World Bank, its Executive Directors,or the countries they represent. Policy Research Working Papers are available online at http://econ.worldbank.org.
1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com,firstname.lastname@example.org. The views expressed here are the authors' and do not necessarily reflectthose of the World Bank, its Executive Directors, or the countries they represent. The WorldwideGovernance Indicators are not used by the World Bank for resource allocation or for any other officialpurpose. We would like to B. Parks, M. Camerer, M. Carballo, R. Fullenbaum, B. Muskovitz, F. Marzo, C.Walker, S. Sarkis, J. Langston, L. Abruzzese, P. Wongwan, S. Hatipoglu, D. Cingranelli, D. Richards, J.Zveglich, M. Lagos, A. Lopes-Claros, R. Coutinho, S. Mannan, and D. Cieslikowsky for providing data andanswering our numerous questions, and Luis Servén for helpful comments. The support and collaboration ofthe World Economic Forum, the U.S. State Department, and the Netherlands Government is appreciated.