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Odredjeni integrali

# Odredjeni integrali

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Published by Milos Macedoljan

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Published by: Milos Macedoljan on Apr 26, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/31/2013

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ODRE
ENI INTEGRALI
Njutn-Lajbnicova formula: ako je
()
f xneprekidna na
[,]
a bi ako je
()
F xnjena primitivna funkcija na
[,]
a b
, onda je
()()()()
ba
f x dx F x F b F a
.
1.

Izra
unati:
20
1
x dx
Pošto je1,za 111,za 1
x x x x x
, bi
e:
122122200101
1(1)(1)122
x x x dx x dx x dx x x
 

2.

Izra
unati:
1)
30
xarctgxdx
, 2)
0
sin
x xdx


33322200033200
1111)2213111232213123222332
x x xarctgxdx arctgx dx xdx dx x
 
 

22
12
u arctgx dv xdxdx xdu v x

0000
2) sincoscossin
x xdx x x xdx x
 

sincos
u x dv xdxdu dx v x
 

3.

Izra
unati:
/222220
, (,0)sincos
dxa ba x b x

Da bi se izbeglo pretvaranje u nesvojstven integral (smenom
tgx
ili
ctgx
na celomintervalu), integral se prvo izrazi kao zbir dva integrala, pa se u prvi uvede smena
tgx
, a u drugi
ctgx
:

/2/4/222222222222200/4 /4/210222222222222220/40111122222222000
sincossincossincos /cos/sinc1111 /
dx dx dxa x b x a x b x a x b xdx x dx x dt da tg x b a b tg x a t b a b dt dt aarctg arca t b a b t a b ab b ab
   
10
12
bt tgaa barctg arctgab b a ab


4.

Izra
unati:
1000
1cos2
xdx


100100002991000989929910009899
1cos22sin2sinsin...sinsin2(coscos...coscos)2002
xdx x dx xdx xdx xdx xdx x x x x
    
5.

Neka je
f(x)

neprekidna funkcija na
[
-l,l
]
. Dokazati:
1)
0
()2(), ()
l ll
f x dx f x dx f x
ako jeparna
,2)()0, () .
ll
f x dx f x
ako jeneparna
Prvo se dati integral rastavi na zbir dva integrala,
00
()()()
l ll l
f x dx f x dx f x dx
,a zatim se u prvi uvede smena
x
 
:
000000000
()()()()()()()()()(()()).
l ll ll l l ll
f x dx f x dx f t dt f x dx f t dt f x dx f x dx f x dx f x f x dx

Ako je funkcija parna,
()()
f x f x
, a ako je neparna,
()()
f x f x
 
, odakle sledetražena tvr
enja.
6.

1) Ako su
(sin) (cos)
f x f x
i

neprekidne funkcije na
[0,/2]

, dokazati davaži:
/2/200
(sin)(cos)
f x dx f x dx

.
2) Ako je
(sin)
f x
neprekidna funkcija na
[0,]

, dokazati da važi:
00
(sin)(sin)2
xf x dx f x dx


, pa na osnovu toga izra
unati
20
sin1cos
x xdx x

.1)

U prvi integral uvede se smena
/2
x

(sin(/2)cos
t

):
/20/20/20
(sin)(cos)()(cos),
f x dx f t dt f t dt
 
što je i trebalo dokazati.2)

U prvi integral uvede se smena
x

(
sin()sin
t

):
0000
(sin)()(sin)()(sin)(sin)
xf x dx t f t dt f t dt tf t dt
 

,pa je
00
2(sin)(sin)
xf x dx f x dx


, što je i trebalo dokazati.
7.

Izra
unati površinu ograni
enu krivama
2 25.
xy x y
i
Hiperbola
2
xy
i prava
25
x y
seku se u ta
kama
ije su apscise1/2
x
i2.
x
Površina se ra
una pomo
u integrala
2121/2
(()())
f x f x dx
, gde je
1
()
f x
gornja kriva, uovom slu
aju prava
25
x y
, a
2
()
f x
donja kriva, u ovom slu
aju hiperbola
2
xy
.
2221/21/2
215(52)(52ln)2ln2.4
P x dx x x x x
 

8.

Izra
unati površinu ograni
enu krivom
ln
y x

i
x
-osom, za
1/
e x e
.Na intervalu
[1/,1]
e
kriva
ln
y x
je ispod
x
-ose, a na intervalu
[1,]
e
kriva je iznad
x
-ose. Zato je:

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