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chap6-10 - Khosla

chap6-10 - Khosla

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05/14/2013

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Khosla’s Theory

Some structures designed on
Bligh‟s
theory gave trouble.Khosla investigated the causes by inserting some pipes on the d/s side of the weir through impervious apron.The pressures measured were not as calculated according to
Bligh‟s
theory.Khosla proved that seeping water through permeable soil follow parabolicstreamlines and not along the underside profile of the impervious floor as givenby Bligh.Flow of water takes place according to Laplace equation, i.e. the potentialflow theory.

Stream Lines

The streamlines represent the paths along which thewater flows through the sub-soil.
Every particle entering the soil at a given point upstreamof the work, will trace out its own path and will represent astreamline.
The first streamline follows the bottom contour of theworks and is the same as Bligh's path of Field creep.
The remaining streamlines follow smooth curves transitingslowly from the outline of the foundation to a semi-ellipse,as shown in above figure.

Equipotential Lines

(1)
Treating the downstream bed as datum and assuming no water on thedownstream side, it can be easily stated that every streamline possesses ahead equal to
h
1

while entering the soil; and when it emerges at the down-stream end into the atmosphere, its head is zero. Thus, the head
h
1
isentirely lost during the passage of water along the streamline.Further, at every intermediate point in its path, there is certain residual head
(h)
still to be dissipated in the remaining length to be traversed to thedownstream end. This fact is applicable to every streamline, and hence,there will be points on different streamlines having the same value of residual head
h.
If such points are joined together, the curve obtained iscalled an
equipotential line.
Every water particle on line
AB
h= h
1

and on
CD
is havin
g
h = 0,
and hence,
AB and CD
are equipotentiallines
.
Since an equipotential line represents the joining of points of equal residualhead, hence if piezometers were installed on an equipotential line, the waterwill rise in all of them up to the same level.

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