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5000 Oilfield Terms - A Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Terms

5000 Oilfield Terms - A Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Terms

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5000 Oilfield Terms:A Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Terms,Abbreviations and Acronyms
August 25, 2010George E. King Engineeringwww.GEKEngineering.com Right to Copy is Granted.US spelling usedA Annulus: the inside annulus; tubing-by-production casing annulus. (Note, there may be regionaldifferences in the A, B, C annulus designations and some are reversed. Inside annuli (IA) and outsideannuli (OA) are more universally descriptive.)AAIOR: annualized average incremental oil rate.AAODC: American Association of Oilwell Drilling Contractors.AAPEA: Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association.AAPG: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.AAPL: American Association of Petroleum Landmen.AAR: after action review.AASP: allowable annular surface pressure.AAV (subsea): annular access valve.Abalation Debris (perforating): small pieces of rock broken up by the perforating process.Abandon: typically means to cease efforts, either temporarily or permanently, to produce a well. Abandonmay have a legal meaning in some locations.Abandonment Cost: Costs associated with the abandonment of facilities or services, including costs for theremoval of facilities and restoration of the land.Abiogenic Theory: a theory of petroleum generation in which petroleum is thought to have formed from
hydrocarbons trapped inside the earth’s crust when the earth was forming. See also Biogenic and Organic
theories.Abject Failure (Risk): a failure mode that can cause the cancellation-of or immediate-halt-to a project orevent. Generally expressed as a percent probability.Abandon: to cease efforts to produce or inject fluids in a wells and to plug the well sufficiently to protectthe environment and the ability to redrill and develop other reserves at a later date.Abandonment Pressure: The minimum pressure of the reservoir when the wells are abandoned.Abnormally Pressured: a pore pressure higher than a column of sea water for that true vertical depth.
 
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Abrasion (geologic): a form of mechanical weathering where loose fragments are transported with water orwind.Abrasion (mechanical): wearing away by friction.Abrasive: particles propelled at a velocity sufficient to cause cleaning or wearing away of a surface.Abrasive Jetting: a perforating process involving pumping a slurry of liquid and size particles through anozzle to cut through steel and rock.ABS: American Bureau of Shipping.ABS (plastic): Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene.Absolute Ages: estimation/measurement of age of a formation, fossil, etc., in years before the present.Absolute Filter Level: a filter rating that purports to set the maximum size of an opening in a filter or themaximum size of the particle that can pass through the filter. The definition varies with use and company.Absolute Open Flow (AOF): the maximum rate that a well can produce at the lowest possible bottom holepressure.Absolute Open Flow Potential: the theoretical maximum flow that a well could deliver with a zerobackpressure at the middle of the perforations.Absolute Permeability: permeability to a single phase fluid in a cleaned core.Absolute Porosity: the percentage of the total bulk volume that is pore spaces, voids or fractures.Absolute Pressure: the reading of gauge pressure plus the atmospheric pressure.Absolute Temperature: temperature measurement starting at absolute zero (total absence of heat).
Absolute Viscosity: the measure of a fluid’s ability to resist flow without re
gards to its density. It is defined
as a fluid’s kinematic viscosity multiplied by its density.
 Absolute Volume: the volume a solid occupies when added to a fluid divided by its weight. m
3
 /kg or gal/lb.Absolute Zero: zero point on the absolute temperature scale; equal to -273.16 degrees C, or 0 degrees K(Kelvin), or -459.69 degrees F, or 0 degrees R (Rankine).Absorb: to fill part or all of the pore spaces.Absorber: a vertical, cylindrical vessel that recovers heavier (longer carbon chain) hydrocarbons from amixture of lighter hydrocarbons.Absorptance (seismic): the ratio of the energy absorbed by a formation in relationship to the total energypassing through it.Absorption (processing): the ability of one material to absorb another.Absorption Gasoline: gasoline extracted from wet natural gas by putting the gas in contact with oil.Absorption Oil (facilities): the wash oil used to remove heavier hydrocarbons from the gas stream.Abyssal: depositional environment of the deepest areas of the oceans.
 
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Abyssal Plain: large, flat ocean floor, usually near a continent and usually over 4km (13100 ft) ss.ACA: after closure analysis; a fracture performance test method.AC Test Dust
TM
: a precision sized micron particle material used for testing the solids stopping capability of filters.Accelerator (chemical): A chemical that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction. Most common are theaccelerators used in cementing.Accelerator (drilling): an energy increasing device, with sudden energy release, used in a jarring stringwhile fishing.Accommodation: place where personnel spend their off-duty time on a rig.Accretion: the action of particles forming adhering clumps on pipe.Accumulation (reservoir): an economic quantity of hydrocarbon trapped in a permeable rock strata.Accumulator (pressure control device): canisters of hydraulic fluid, pressurized with a nitrogen gas cap of sufficient pressure and volume to operate all the rams on a BOP in case of power failure to the BOP.Accumulator (processing plant): a vessel that receives and temporarily stores a liquid used in the feed stock or the processing of a feed stream in a gas plant or other processing facility.Accumulator Precharge: the initial nitrogen charge on a BOP accumulator that is placed before the fluid ispumped in to charge the accumulator.Accuracy: the closeness of agreement between the measure value and the exact value.Acetic Acid: a very weak organic acid used for minor and shallow damage removal. Also used as amoderately effective iron precipitation preventer. 4% acetic acid is vinegar.ACFM: actual cubic feet per minute.Acid: a reactive material with a low pH. Common oilfield mineral acids are HCl and HCl/HF.Acid Brittleness: low ductility of a metal due to its adsorption of hydrogen. More commonly calledhydrogen embrittlement.Acid Effect: the change in pulsed neutron capture created by acidizing a carbonate. Acidizing increasesinterconnected porosity and strands chlorides and other ions in the rock.Acid Flowback Analysis: chemical analysis of the acid concentration and other chemical and physicalmeasurements in the returning acid.Acid Fracture: to fracture stimulate a formation by injecting the acid over the parting pressure of the rock and using the acid to etch channels in the fracture face.Acid Gas: any produced gas, primarily H
2
S and CO
2
that form an acid when produced in water.Acid Inhibitor: acid corrosion inhibitor. Slows the acid attack on metal.Acid Solubility: the percent by weight loss of exposing a sample of material to an excess of acid.

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