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Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology

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Published by umar naeem
it is guided by wikipedia and some books
it is guided by wikipedia and some books

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: umar naeem on Apr 27, 2012
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03/09/2013

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NANO TECHNOLOGY
09me84
1.0. INTRODUCTION
Nanotechnology
or 
nanotech
is the study of manipulating matter onanatomicandmolecular scale. Or Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. Or 'nanotechnology' refers to the projected ability to construct items
 fromthe bottom up
, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products. Generally, nanotechnology deals with developing materials, devices, or other structures possessing at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100nanometres Nanotechnology is very diverse, ranging from extensions of conventionaldevice physicstocompletely new approaches based uponmolecular self-assembly,from developingnew materialswith dimensions on the nanoscale todirect control of matter on the atomic scale.  Nanotechnology entails the application of fields of science as diverse assurface science,organic chemistry,molecular biology,semiconductor physics,microfabrication, etc. There is much debate on the futureimplications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may beable to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such asinmedicine, electronics, biomaterialsand energy production. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concernsabout thetoxicityand environmental impact of nanomaterials, and their potential effects onglobal economics, as well as speculation about variousdoomsday scenarios. These concernshave led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether specialregulation of nanotechnologyis warranted.Everything we see around us is made of atoms, the tiny elemental building blocks of matter.From stone, to copper, to bronze, iron, steel, and now silicon, the major technological ages of humankind have been defined by what these atoms can do in huge aggregates, trillions upon
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NANO TECHNOLOGY
09me84
trillions of atoms at a time, molded, shaped, and refined as macroscopic objects. Even in our vaunted microelectronics of 1999, in our highest-tech silicon computer chip the smallest featureis a mountain compared to the size of a single atom. The resultant technology of our 20thcentury is fantastic, but it pales when compared to what will be possible when we learn to buildthings at the ultimate level of control, one atom at a time.”It is argued that throughnanotechnology, it has become possible to create functional devices, materials and systems onthe 1 to 100 nanometer (one billionth of a meter) length scale. The reasons why nanoscale has become so important are presented.
2.0. HISTORY
The
 
history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of  
 
nanotechnology. Although nanotechnology is a relativelyrecent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happenedover a longer period of time. The emergence of nanotechnology in the 1980s was caused by theconvergence of experimental advances such as the invention of the 
 
scanning tunnelingmicroscopein 1981 and the discovery of  
 
fullerenesin 1985, with the elucidation and popularization of a conceptual framework for the goals of nanotechnology beginning with the1986 publication of the book 
. The field was subject to growing publicawareness and controversy in the early 2000s, with prominent debates about both its potentialimplicationsas well as the feasibility of the applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology
 
, and with governments moving to promote andfund researchintonanotechnology. The early 2000s also saw the beginnings of commercial
 
, although these were limited to bulk applications of 
 
nanomaterialsrather thanthe 
 
transformativeapplications envisioned by the field.
2.0.1. Richard Feynman
The American physicist Richard Feynman lectured, "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom," atanAmerican Physical Societymeeting atCaltechon December 29, 1959, which is often held to have provided inspiration for the field of nanotechnology. Feynman had described a process bywhich the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules might be developed, using oneset of precise tools to build and operate another proportionally smaller set, so on down to theneeded scale. In the course of this, he noted, scaling issues would arise from the changingmagnitude of various physical phenomena: gravity would become less important, surfacetension andVan der Waals attractionwould become more important.After Feynman's death, scholars studying the historical development of nanotechnology haveconcluded that his actual role in catalyzing nanotechnology research was limited, based onrecollections from many of the people active in the nascent field in the 1980s and 1990s. ChrisToumey, a cultural anthropologist at the University of South Carolina, found that the publishedversions of Feynman’s talk had a negligible influence in the twenty years after it was first published, as measured by citations in the scientific literature, and not much more influence inthe decade after the Scanning Tunneling Microscope was invented in 1981. Subsequently,interest in “Plenty of Room” in the scientific literature greatly increased in the early 1990s.This is probably because the term “nanotechnology” gained serious attention just before thattime, following its use byK. Eric Drexlein his 1986 book,Engines of Creation: The Coming
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NANO TECHNOLOGY
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Era of Nanotechnology, which took the Feynman concept of a billion tiny factories and addedthe idea that they could make more copies of themselves via computer control instead of control by a human operator; and in a cover article headlined "Nanotechnology", publishedlater that year in a mass-circulation science-oriented magazine,OMNI. Toumey’s analysis alsoincludes comments from distinguished scientists in nanotechnology who say that “Plenty of Room” did not influence their early work, and in fact most of them had not read it until a later date.These and other developments hint that the retroactive rediscovery of Feynman’s “Plenty of Room” gave nanotechnology a packaged history that provided an early date of December 1959, plus a connection to the charisma and genius of Richard Feynman. Feynman's stature as a Nobel laureate and as an iconic figure in 20th century science surely helped advocates of nanotechnology and provided a valuable intellectual link to the past.
2.0.2. Norio Taniguchi
The Japanese scientist Norio Taniguchi of theTokyo University of Sciencewas the first to usethe term "nano-technology" in a 1974 conference, to describe semiconductor processes such asthin film deposition and ion beam milling exhibiting characteristic control on the order of ananometer. His definition was, "'Nano-technology' mainly consists of the processing of,separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule
.
 
2.0.3. K. Eric Drexler
In the 1980s the idea of nanotechnology as adeterministic, rather thanstochastic, handling of  individual atoms and molecules was conceptually explored in depth by K. Eric Drexler , who promoted the technological significance of nano-scale phenomena and devices throughspeeches and two influential books.In 1979, Drexler encountered Feynman's provocative 1959 talk "There's Plenty of Room at theBottom".The term "nanotechnology", which had been coined by Taniguchi in 1974, wasunknowingly appropriated by Drexler in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Eraof Nanotechnology,which proposed the idea of a nanoscale "assembler" which would be ableto build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity. He also first published theterm "grey goo" to describe what might happen if a hypothetical self-replicating molecular nanotechnology went out of control. Drexler's vision of nanotechnology is often called"Molecular Nanotechnology" (MNT) or "molecular manufacturing," and Drexler at one point proposed the term "zettatech" which never became popular.
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