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The 555 Timer

The 555 Timer

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Published by: gurudatha265 on Dec 19, 2008
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01/28/2013

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The 555 timer is a Monolithic integrated circuit used to generate precise time delays or timings pulses whose duration or repetition rate is determined by an external timing resistor R and timingcapacitor C.It is the most versatile IC introduced by the Signetics Corporation in the early 1970s and has awide variety of applications.Applications of 555 TimersMonostable &Astable MultivibratorsWaveform generatorsBurglar AlarmsMeasurement, Process & Control CircuitsMissing pulse detectorsTraffic light controlAutomatic Battery chargersLogic probesDC to DC Converters etc.FEATURES OF 555 TIMER 1. The 555 Timer is a highly stable & inexpensive device for generating accurate time delay or oscillation.2. It can provide time delays ranging from microseconds to hours.3. It can be used with power supply voltage ranging from +5V to +18V.4. It can source or sink up to 200mA.5. It is compatible with both TTL & CMOS logic circuits.6. It has very high temperature stability & it is designed to operate in the temperature range -55
o
 to +125
o
C(SE 555), whereas NE555 is a commercial grade IC (0 - 70
o
C).A Basic TIMER CircuitConsider the following block schematic:
THE 555 TIMER
OutputUnit
ReferenceResetComparator Output
ChargingUnit
Trigger 
 
 Charging Unit:
 
C charges through R when switch is open with time constant RC.
 
The voltage across C is applied to positive input of the comparator. Thecomparator compares this voltage with reference voltage applied atreference input. If V
c
>Vref, Output is 0 otherwise output is 1.
 
Immediately after trigger, output jumps to its high level& remains thereuntil capacitor charges above Vref.
 
The time period for which V
o
is high is controlled by adjusting timeconstant RC.
 
The reset input to the timer is used to interrupt the timing interval & toreset the output. This input overrides all the functions of the timer.
PIN DIAGRAM OF THE 555 TIMER
Functions of pins:1. Ground: All voltages are measured with respect to this terminal.2. Trigger: It is the external input that will be applied to the inverting input of the lower comparator & will be compared with V
cc
/3 coming from the potential divider network.3. Output: Complement of the output of the flip-flop acts as the final output of timer as it passesthrough a power amplifier with inverter. Load can either be connected between pin 3 & ground or  pin 3 & V
cc
.4. Reset : This is an input to the timing device which provides a mechanism to reset the flip-flopin a manner which overrides the effect of any instruction coming to the FF from lower comparator. This is effective when the reset input is less than 0.4V.When not used it is returned toV
cc
.5. Control Voltage input: Generally the fixed voltages of 1/3V
cc
& 2/3V
cc
also aid in determiningthe timing interval. The control voltage at 5 can be used when it is required to vary the time &also in such cases when the reference level at V- of the UC is other than 2/3Vcc.Generally when not used a capacitor of 0.01uF should be connected between 5 & ground to bypass noise or ripple from the supply.6. Threshold: An external voltage by means of a timing capacitor & resistor is applied to this pin.When this voltage is greater than 2/3V
cc
output of UC is 1 which is given to the set input of FFthereby setting the FF making Q=1 & Q=0.7. Discharge: This pin is connected to the collector of the discharge transistor Q
1
.When Q outputof the FF is 1,then Transistor Q
1
is on due to sufficient base drive hence driving transistor intosaturation.When output of the FF is low Transistor Q
1
is off hence acting as a open circuit to any externaldevice connected to it.8. +Vcc (Power Supply): It can work with any supply voltage between 5 & 18V.The detailed internal block diagram of 555 Timer is as shown below:
 
ThresholdControl voltageDischargeoututIC 555+ VccGNDTrigger ResetVccC
 
 The two major applications of 555 timer are:
 
Monostable multivibrator.
 
Astable multivibrator.These applications are understood as follows:
MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR Using IC 555
A monostable multivibrator is a regenerative comparator having one stable state & onequasistable state.The IC555 timer can be operated as a monostable MV by connecting an external resistor & acapacitor as shown in fig. below:1
FlipFlop
Q5K 5K 5K UCLC658742PA +Inverter V
ref 
 Q
1
 Q
2
 S3

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