C charges through R when switch is open with time constant RC.
The voltage across C is applied to positive input of the comparator. Thecomparator compares this voltage with reference voltage applied atreference input. If V
>Vref, Output is 0 otherwise output is 1.
Immediately after trigger, output jumps to its high level& remains thereuntil capacitor charges above Vref.
The time period for which V
is high is controlled by adjusting timeconstant RC.
The reset input to the timer is used to interrupt the timing interval & toreset the output. This input overrides all the functions of the timer.
PIN DIAGRAM OF THE 555 TIMER
Functions of pins:1. Ground: All voltages are measured with respect to this terminal.2. Trigger: It is the external input that will be applied to the inverting input of the lower comparator & will be compared with V
/3 coming from the potential divider network.3. Output: Complement of the output of the flip-flop acts as the final output of timer as it passesthrough a power amplifier with inverter. Load can either be connected between pin 3 & ground or pin 3 & V
.4. Reset : This is an input to the timing device which provides a mechanism to reset the flip-flopin a manner which overrides the effect of any instruction coming to the FF from lower comparator. This is effective when the reset input is less than 0.4V.When not used it is returned toV
.5. Control Voltage input: Generally the fixed voltages of 1/3V
also aid in determiningthe timing interval. The control voltage at 5 can be used when it is required to vary the time &also in such cases when the reference level at V- of the UC is other than 2/3Vcc.Generally when not used a capacitor of 0.01uF should be connected between 5 & ground to bypass noise or ripple from the supply.6. Threshold: An external voltage by means of a timing capacitor & resistor is applied to this pin.When this voltage is greater than 2/3V
output of UC is 1 which is given to the set input of FFthereby setting the FF making Q=1 & Q=0.7. Discharge: This pin is connected to the collector of the discharge transistor Q
.When Q outputof the FF is 1,then Transistor Q
is on due to sufficient base drive hence driving transistor intosaturation.When output of the FF is low Transistor Q
is off hence acting as a open circuit to any externaldevice connected to it.8. +Vcc (Power Supply): It can work with any supply voltage between 5 & 18V.The detailed internal block diagram of 555 Timer is as shown below: