Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword or section
Like this
7Activity
P. 1
Operating Room Manual

Operating Room Manual

Ratings: (0)|Views: 883|Likes:
Published by athina_chia

More info:

Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: athina_chia on Apr 28, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/25/2013

pdf

text

original

 
STERILIZATION & DISINFECTIONAntiseptics
 
Typically an antiseptic is a chemical agent that is applied to living tissue to killmicrobes
Disinfectants
 
A disinfectant is a chemical or physical agent that is applied to inanimate objectsto kill microbes
Microorganism
 
anorganismthat ismicroscopic(usually too small to be seen by the naked human eye) Pathogenic Microorganisms
Sterility
 
indicates a micro-environment (the surgical field) made free of infectiousmicroorganisms. 
Disinfection
 
reducing the number of viable microorganisms present in a sample
Sterilization
 
killing of all microorganisms in a material or on the surface of an object
Bactericidal
 
antimicrobialthat kills a microorganism
Bacteriostatic
 
antimicrobialinhibits bacterial growth but does not kill the bacteria
Methods of Sterilization
 A. Physical Sterilization
1.
 
Moist Heat
 
 – 
kills all bacteria by coagulating or denaturing of the protein of thebacteria
a.
 
Boiling (non-pressure sterilizer)b.
 
Saturated Steam under pressure (AUTOCLAVE)
2
. Dry Heat
 
 – 
recommended for use only where direct contact of material with steamis impractical of not availablea.
Dry Heat Autoclave (hot air oven)
 
 – 
used for oil, ointment, and powders.
 B. Chemical Sterilization
 
Accomplished by use of ethylene oxide gas
 
Ethylene oxide is a chemical agent that kills microorganisms, including spores,by interfering with the normal metabolism of protein and reproductive processes,resulting in death of cells
Shelf-Life
 – 
expiration date
 
1. Condition of Storage
 
Free of dust, dirt and vermin
 
Paper-wrapped/muslin-wrapped items good for 30 days, open shelving21 days
 
Protect from extreme temperature
2. Material used for packaging
 
Muslin and paper wrapped items may be stored for 24-30 days,afterwhich re-sterilization is required, but if sealed in airtight plasticbag, following cooling or aerating, shelf life can be prolonged from 6-12 months
3. Seal of the package
 
Tape sealed packages wrapped in non-warm fabrics or plastic film canbe stored for 3-4 months
4. Integrity of the packageDisinfection
 
It differs from Sterilization by its lack of sporocidal power
 
Used in the OR to kill microorganisms on inanimate surfaces and objects thatcannot be sterilized
Limitations of Chemical Disinfection
 
Doesn’
t KILL SPORES
 
Real STRENGTH not known
 
LONG TIMING
 
DIFFICULT to submerge some articles
 
NOT SUITABLE for some materials
 
Can cause IRRITATION to tissue
 
ABILITY to disinfect is limited to max concentration
Uses for chemical disinfection
 
WOVEN
 
CATHETER
 
ENDOSCOPIC Instruments
 
POLYETHYLENE
 
EYE Surgery
 
Pointers when Using Chemical Disinfection
 
Free from blood, secretions
 
Rinse and dry under sterile conditions
 
Solutions may be rinsed off if practical
DISINFECTANTS
 
Formaldehyde (Formalin)
 
Glutaraldehyde (Cidex)
 
Phenol 100%
 
Lysol
 
Zephiran Chloride 17%
ANTISEPTICS
 
Hexacholorophene - neurotoxic
 
Betadine
 – 
watch out iodinesensitivity
 
Mercurochrome
 
Aqueous Zephiran
 
Chorhexidine Gluconate
ANESTHESIA
 History of Anesthesia
 
Nero(AD 37-65)
 
 – 
greek and roman surgeons gave the potion of condemned (WineAnd Vinegar)
 
Ambroise Pare
 
 – 
compression of blood vessels and nerves near surgical site in 16
th
 century
 
Also found out that half frozen soldiers have higher pain threshold
 
Refrigeration anesthesia
was revived in 1941 for amputation in world war II.
 
Joseph Priestley (1733-1804)
 
 – 
Laughing gas - NO2 and O2 combination
 
Crawford Williamson Long
 
 – 
administered the 1
st
ether anesthetic
 
James Simpson
 
 – 
instituted the use of chloroform anesthesia in 1847
 
Friedrich Trendelenburg
 
 – 
ET Anesthesia
 
Chevalier Jackson
 
 – 
Laryngoscope
 
Harvey Cushing
 
 – 
founded the unconscious/unaware anesthesia
 
Ether synthesized in 1540 by
Cordus
 
 
Ether used as anesthetic in 1842 by
Dr. Crawford W. Long
 
 
Ether publicized as anesthetic in 1846 by
Dr. William Morton
 
 
Chloroform used as anesthetic in 1853 by
Dr. John Snow
 
 
Local anesthesia with cocaine in 1885
 
Thiopental
first used in 1934
 
Curare ( a muscle paralyzing agent)
first used in 1942 - opened
the “
Age of 
Anesthesia”
 Basic Principles of Anesthesia
Anesthesia defined as the abolition of sensation

Activity (7)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
Qeena Woodard liked this
Qeena Woodard liked this
Qeena Woodard liked this
Nhorie Dimaro liked this
Qeena Woodard liked this
Qeena Woodard liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->