When the Ethernet is not busy, the sender begins sending the frame.
The sender listens to make sure that no collision occurred.
If there was a collision, all stations that sent a frame send a jamming signal to ensure thatall stations recognize the collision.
After the jamming is complete, each sender of one of the original collided framesrandomizes a timer and waits that long before resending. (Other stations that did not createthe collision do not have to wait to send.)
After all timers expire, the original senders can begin again with Step 1.
Collision Domains and Switch Buffering
is a set of devices that can send frames that collide with frames sent byanother device in that same set of devices.By definition of the term,
Operate solely at Ethernet Layer 1
Repeat (regenerate) electrical signals to improve cabling distances
Forward signals received on a port out all other ports (no buffering)
As a result of a hub’s logic, a hub creates a single
Switches, however,create a different collision domain per switch port.
Switches have the same cabling and signal regeneration benefits as hubs, but switchesdo a lot more
including sometimes reducing or even eliminating collisions bybuffering frames. When switches receive multiple frames on different switch ports,they store the frames in memory buffers to prevent collisions.
The only devices that could create a collision are the switch port and the oneconnected device
and they each have a separate twisted pair on which to transmit.Because collisions cannot occur, such segments can use full-duplex logic.
When a switch port connects to a hub, it needs to operate in
, because collisions might occur due to the logic used by the hub.