Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Dispelling Doubt About Knowledge of the Unseen

Dispelling Doubt About Knowledge of the Unseen

Ratings: (0)|Views: 10|Likes:
Published by takwania

More info:

Published by: takwania on Apr 29, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/12/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Dispelling Doubt about Knowledge of the Unseen
December 8, 2011An original Deoband.org articleBy 'Allamah Mufti Muhammad Shafi'Translated by Zameelur Rahman[
Translator’s Note
: The following is the translation of a treatise byMufti Muhammad Shafi‘called
 Kashf al-Rayb ‘an ‘Ilm al-Ghayb
(Dispelling Doubtabout Knowledge of the Unseen) on the topic of the knowledge of the unseen (
 ghayb
). It is a work written as a commentary of two verses from the NobleQur’an from Surah al-Naml and Surah Luqman, as part of his contribution to the monumental legal exegesis of the Noble Qur’an called
 Ahkam al-Qur’an
, compiled upon the instruction of Hakim al-Ummah Mawlana Ashraf ‘Ali al-Thanawi by four leading Hanafi jurists of India from the last century.This section of the commentary was completed on Safar of 1363 H (January 1944 CE) as mentioned by the author at the end of his commentary of SurahLuqman. Shaykh ‘Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghuddah said about the work 
 Ahkam al-Qur’an
: “It is a book that is fitting to be said of it in the language of the jurists and scholars: ‘Studying it is a lasting bliss, and attaining the like of it is a great victory.’” (
Qawa‘id fi ‘Ulum al-Hadith
, p. 9) For more details onthe book see Mufti Taqi Usmani’s introduction here.]
Say, “None in the heavens and the earth has the knowledge of the unseen except Allah.” And they do not know when they will be raised again. (Qur’an27:65)
The Exclusiveness of the Knowledge of the
Ghayb
(Unseen) to Him (Exalted is He) apart from all Creation
This verse proves the exclusiveness of the knowledge of the
 ghayb
to Him (Great and Glorious is He), and its negation from all besides him, whoever hemay be. This is an undisputed verdict, pronounced by clear texts of the Book and Sunnah. The ummah have agreed upon it, and the four schools and allthe jurists of the towns have reached consensus on it, and the one who denies it, turns apostate. However, some of the children of our time have withrespect to this [matter] fallen into straitness and difficulty, so much so that some fools and commoners have almost fallen into a grave affair – and protection is from Allah (Exalted is He)! Therefore, I wished to expand the discussion on this [topic] with some detail, in which the harmony between theverses, hadiths and reports of the Salaf will be studied and the import [of their speech] will be determined. Then the doubts of those who have strayedfrom the straight path will be dispelled – and Allah is the Guide to the Straight Path.
Determining the Meaning of the
Ghayb
that is Exclusive to Him (Exalted is He)
Know, firstly, that those who have become obsessed in this matter with figurative interpretation or denial, it is only the affirmation of knowledge of 
 ghayb
for the Chief of the Prophets and Messengers, the collector of the sciences of the earlier and later peoples, our master and our Prophet (Allah bless himand grant him peace), that drives them to this, due to their belief that its negation from him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) is a blemish within thesanctity of his prophethood and messengership, or a reduction in his rank. Hence, they got into [the dilemma] which they got into without determining themeaning of the
 ghayb
that is exclusive to His (Exalted is He) essence, which is negated from him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and the rest of creation; and they began to derive proof for their conclusion from all that is transmitted about his knowledge or his (Allah bless him and grant him peace)
 
reports about the unknown, yet they do not know that what is established by these proofs is not negated from him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) inthe Shari‘ah according to any of the Muslims, and what is negated from him is not established by these verses.Therefore, you must firstly determine the meaning of 
 ghayb
which is exclusive to His (Glorious and High is He) essence, that is negated from all besidesHim, so it becomes clear to you that the
 ghayb
which is specific to His (Glorified and Exalted is He) essence cannot possibly be acquired by any of thecreation. Just as the negation of divinity and exclusive divine attributes from our Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and all prophets andmessengers is not a blemish or a reduction in their ranks at all, similarly negating this
 ghayb
from him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) does notinfringe on his rank or on a merit from his merits at all. The objective of this negation is not that he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) knows nothingof the unknown. How [can this be the objective], when the texts of the Book and Sunnah regarding his (upon him blessing and peace) comprehension of many things from the unknown have been recurrently transmitted such that the scope of this subject is too small to contain them?
The Meaning of 
Ghayb
Linguistically and in the Shari‘ah
Verifying the meaning of 
 ghayb
, Imam al-Raghib al-Asfahani said in
 Mufradat al-Qur’an
:
Ghayb
is a verbal noun of [
 ghaba
in the sentence]: “The sun – and other than it – went out of sight (
 ghabat 
)” when it is concealed from theeye. It is said: “Such-and-such was hidden (
 ghaba
) from me.” He (Exalted is He) said [quoting Sulayman (peace be upon him)]: “Or is he [i.e.Hudhud] from the absentees (
 gha’ibin
)?” (27:20). It [i.e.
 ghayb
] is used for everything hidden from the senses and all that is hidden from theknowledge of people in the sense of [being] absent. He said: “There is nothing hidden in the heavens and the earth that is not in a manifest book.” (27:75)A thing is called “unseen” (
 ghayb
) and “hidden” (
 gha’ib
) by consideration of it with respect to people, not with Allah (Exalted is He), for nothing is hidden from Him, as not even the measure of an atom in the heavens and earth is hidden from Him (Qur’an 34:2, 10:61). Hisstatement: “Knower of the unseen and seen” (6:73) refers to what is hidden from you and what you see. The “unseen” (
 ghayb
) in Hisstatement: “They believe in the unseen” (2:3) [refers to] that which does not fall below the senses (
hawass
) and the immediate intuition of theintellects does not necessitate it, and it is only known from the report of the prophets (upon them peace), and by its rejection the term“apostasy” (
ilhad 
) applies to a person.Based on these [meanings] are His statements: “Those who fear their Lord unseen” (21:49), “To Allah belong the secrets of the heavens andthe earth” (11:123), “Has he peeped into the unseen?” (19:78), “He does not disclose His unseen to anyone” (72:26), “None in the heavensand the earth has the knowledge of the unseen except Allah” (27:65), “This is from the news of the unseen” (3:44, 11:49, 12:102), “Allah isnot one to acquaint you with the unseen,” (3:179) and, “Surely You alone have the full knowledge of all that is unseen” (5:109).The outcome of this is that “unseen” (
 ghayb
) and “hidden” (
 gha’ib
) in the Mighty Qur’an are used for a number of meanings. Hence, in His (Exalted isHe) statement: “Or is he from the absentees (
 gha’ibin
)?” (27:20) by “absentee” is meant the recognised linguistic meaning, that is, something hidden from
 
the senses. And in His (Exalted is He) statement, “None in the heavens and the earth has the knowledge of the unseen (
 ghayb
) except Allah” (27:65) andits equivalents, which concern us [here], the intent of “unseen” is that which does not fall below the senses, and is not comprehensible by rational,experiential or mathematical proofs. Thus, whatever can be comprehended by the senses or rational, experiential or mathematical proof or by any normalor natural means, it is not
 ghayb
based on this definition, and is exclusive to His essence (Exalted is He).It says in
al-Nibras
, the marginalia to
Sharh al-‘Aqa’id al-Nasafiyyah
:In conclusion,
 ghayb
is all that is hidden from the senses and [from] immediate and theoretical knowledge. The Qur’an has pronounced thenegation of its knowledge from all besides Him (Exalted is He). Therefore, whoever claims he knows it, he has disbelieved, and whoever assents to the [claim of the] claimant has disbelieved. As for that which is known by sense-perception or by immediate knowledge or any proof, it is not
 ghayb
, and there is no disbelief in claiming [knowledge of] it, and nor is its assent with certainty in definitive [proof] and withuncertainty in conjectural [proof] [disbelief] according to the verifiers. By this conclusion, the doubt about matters which are assumed to befrom the
 ghayb
, and [in reality] are not from it due to being comprehensible by hearing, sight or any other proof, is dispelled.One of them [i.e. those matters assumed to be from the
 ghayb
but are in reality not from them] is the reports of the prophets (upon them peace), because that was acquired through revelation or the creation of an immediate knowledge in them, or through exposing the [created]existents to their senses.A second of them is the report of a saint because that is acquired from a prophet or from a true dream or from inspiration or from peeping intothe Preserved Tablet which is affirmable according to the people of unveiling, although some jurists disallow it.A third of them is the report of the one who calculates the sonar and lunar eclipse because it is by the means of definitive astronomical proofs.A fourth of them is the reports of an astrologer and geomancer because astrology and geomancy are two theoretical sciences revealed to someof the prophets, and then they were taken away and people became confused about them, so whoever draws proof using a prophetic principlehe will deliver in [his] report.A fifth of them is the report of a soothsayer because it is from that which the jinni informs him after seeing or hearing the angels who knowfuture occurrences by revelation.The equivalent of this is stated in
 Ruh al-Ma‘ani
with more clarity and detail. It is mentioned in it after this that:The unqualified usage of “knowledge of the
 ghayb
” for these things after this is unjustified, yet if you refuse but to call these things “
 ghayb
,”then knowledge of it – because it is through the medium of means – is not from the knowledge of 
 ghayb
that is negated from other than Him(Exalted is He) at all. Similar is all knowledge of the unknown acquired through the medium of a means from the means like our knowledgeof Allah (Exalted is He) and His lofty attributes and our knowledge of Paradise and Hell and the like of this. However, if you were to be fair 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->