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Power Transformer Protection Using Micro Controller Based Relay

Power Transformer Protection Using Micro Controller Based Relay

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Published by Irfan Baig
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Published by: Irfan Baig on Apr 29, 2012
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12/17/2012

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTON1.1 OVERVIEW:
 
The Project Entitled “
POWER TRANSFORMER PROTECTIONUSING MICROCONTROLLER-BASED RELAY”
designed with PeripheralInterface Controller (PIC 16F877A). Utility companies have enormous amounts of money invested in transformers of all types, including distribution and power transformer. Operating, maintaining, and inspecting all power transformers are not aneasy work. In order to reduce burden on maintenance of such transformers a new ideahas been discovered.This project is mainly used to protect the transformer from getting wornout due to electrical disturbances. The electrical parameters like current, voltage of the transformers are fed as base values, using a keypad to the Peripheral InterfaceController and the output signal is provided to operate a relay by comparing the basevalues with the operating electrical parameters. The application consists of a board of electronic components inclusive of a PIC 16F877A microcontroller with programmable logic. It has been designed to work with
 
high accuracy. The electrical parameters of the power transformer such as voltage and current are fed to thePeripheral Interface Controller as base values. The voltage and current value duringthe operation of the power transformer is monitored and fed to the controller. Thesevalues are monitored using a LCD display. By comparing these values the PeripheralInterface Controller produces a trip signal which operates the relay and in turn theconnectivity between main supply and the power transformer is cut off, thus
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 protecting the power transformer from malfunctioning.
1.2 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS:
This paper mainly deals with the protection of power transformer fromvarious faults. The second chapter deals with the various methods already existing inthe protection of the transformer from various faults. The various faults occurring inthe transformer and the steps taken to protect the device from these faults are alsodiscussed. The components of the project and the embedded system are explained inthe same chapter. The next chapter gives an elaborate description of the PICmicrocontroller and its working. This chapter mentions the core features and peripheral features of the PIC16F877A. The various memory organizations and the ports description are detailed in this chapter. The fourth chapter contains the idea of the software used in the project and the variation code. The fifth chapter describes thehardware implemented in the project and the working principle of the variouscomponents of the hardware. The choice of relay considering the various factors isalso listed out in this chapter.
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CHAPTER 2
PROTECTION SYSTEM OF TRANSFORMER 2.1 INTRODUCTION:
The protection system of transformer is inevitable due to the voltagefluctuation, frequent insulation failure, earth fault, over current etc. Thus thefollowing automatic protection systems are incorporated.
1.
Buchholz devices
:A Buchholz relay, also called a gas relay or a sudden pressure relay, isa safety device mounted on some oil-filled power transformers andreactors, equipped with an external overhead oil reservoir called aconservator. The Buchholz Relay is used as a protective device sensitive tothe effects of dielectric failure inside the equipment. It also provides protection against all kind of slowly developed faults such as insulationfailure of winding, core heating and fall of oil level.
2.Earth fault relays:
An earth fault usually involves a partial breakdown of windinginsulation to earth. The resulting leakage current is considerably less thanthe short circuit current. The earth fault may continue for a long time andcreates damage before it ultimately develops into a short circuit and
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