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Published by Tapioca Pearls

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Published by: Tapioca Pearls on Apr 30, 2012
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Chapter 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
1) The body’s water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?
 A) calcium ionsB) potassium ionsC) hydrogen ionsD) sodium ionsAnswer: DPage Ref: 1002-10042.
2) The term hypotonic hydration refers to ________.A) the feeling one might have after a long swimB) the unpleasant feeling people have after drinking too much liquorC) a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of waterD) a condition that is caused by high levels of sodium in the extracellular fluid compartmentAnswer: CPage Ref: 10013.
3) Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins. This problem isoften characterized by ________.A) tissue edemaB) extreme weight lossC) extreme weight gainD) nerve damageAnswer: APage Ref: 10024.
4) Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations inthe extracellular fluid?A) antidiuretic hormoneB) erythropoietinC) aldosteroneD) reninAnswer: CPage Ref: 10045.
5) Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of thishormone is to ________.A) enhance atrial contractionsB) activate the renin-angiotensin mechanismC) prevent pH changes caused by organic acidsD) reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retentionAnswer: DPage Ref: 1004-10056.
6) Respiratory acidosis can occur when ________.A) a person consumes excessive amounts of antacidsB) a person's breathing is shallow due to obstructionC) a runner has completed a very long marathonD) the kidneys secrete hydrogen ionsAnswer: BPage Ref: 1014
7) Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffersystems?A) the lungs and the kidneysB) the adrenal glands and the testesC) the thyroid gland and the heartD) the stomach and the liverAnswer: APage Ref: 1010-10118.
8) Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?A) neuromuscular activityB) membrane permeabilityC) secretory activityD) anabolism of proteinsAnswer: DPage Ref: 10029.
9) Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?A) ADHB) aldosteroneC) water levelsD) glucocorticoidsAnswer: BPage Ref: 100410.
10) The fluid link between the external and internal environment is ________.A) plasmaB) intracellular fluidC) interstitial fluidD) cerebrospinal fluidAnswer: APage Ref: 99611.
11) Newborn infants have a relatively higher ________ content in their ECF than do adults.A) ironB) sodiumC) magnesiumD) bicarbonateAnswer: BPage Ref: 101512.
12) Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ________ is found in theintracellular fluid.A) ironB) chlorideC) potassiumD) magnesiumAnswer: CPage Ref: 997; Fig. 26.213.
13) Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells andbody fluids?
A) K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluidsB) Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluidsC) equal amounts of each ion in the cells and body fluidsD) little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluidsAnswer: APage Ref: 997; Fig. 26.214.
14) Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infantsbecause of their ________.A) inefficient kidneysB) comparatively low metabolic ratesC) low rate of insensible water lossD) low daily rate of fluid exchangeAnswer: APage Ref: 101515.
15) The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ________.A) the potassium ion content in the renal tubule cellsB) the pH of the ICFC) intracellular sodium levelsD) potassium ion concentration in blood plasmaAnswer: DPage Ref: 100616.
16) The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system.A) phosphateB) hemoglobinC) bicarbonateD) proteinAnswer: CPage Ref: 100917.
17) A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia oremphysema indicates ________.A) respiratory acidosisB) respiratory alkalosisC) metabolic acidosisD) metabolic alkalosisAnswer: APage Ref: 1014; Tbl. 26.218.
18) The movement of fluids between cellular compartments ________.A) requires active transportB) is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forcesC) requires ATP for the transport to take placeD) involves filtrationAnswer: BPage Ref: 99819.
19) What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events thatpromote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?A) ADH

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