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The Problems of Philosophy

The Problems of Philosophy

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Published by: alif fikri on Dec 19, 2008
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03/30/2013

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THE PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY
Get any book for free on: www.Abika.com1
The Problems of Philosophy
By Bertrand RussellGet any book for free on:www.Abika.com 
 
THE PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY
Get any book for free on: www.Abika.com2
 
CONTENTS
I APPEARANCE AND REALITYII THE EXISTENCE OR MATTERIII THE NATURE OF MATTERIV IDEALISMV KNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCE AND KNOWLEDGE BY DESCRIPTIONVI ON INDUCTIONVII ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL PRINCIPLESVIII HOW
 A PRIORI 
KNOWLEDGE IS POSSIBLEIX THE WORLD OF UNIVERSALSX ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF UNIVERSALSXI ON INTUITIVE KNOWLEDGEXII TRUTH AND FALSEHOODXIII KNOWLEDGE, ERROR, AND PROBABLE OPINIONXIV THE LIMITS OF PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGEXV THE VALUE OF PHILOSOPHYBIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTEINDEX
PREFACE
IN the following pages I have confined myself in the main to those problems of philosophy in regard to which I thought it possible to say something positive andconstructive, since merely negative criticism seemed out of place. For this reason, theory
 
THE PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY
Get any book for free on: www.Abika.com3of knowledge occupies a larger space than metaphysics in the present volume, and sometopics much discussed by philosophers are treated very briefly, if at all.I have derived valuable assistance from unpublished writings of G. E. Moore and J. M.Keynes: from the former, as regards the relations of sense-data to physical objects, andfrom the latter as regards probability and induction. I have also profited greatly by thecriticisms and suggestions of Professor Gilbert Murray.1912
NOTE TO SEVENTEENTH IMPRESSION
WITH reference to certain statements on pages 44, 75, 131, and 132, it should beremarked that this book was written in the early part of 1912 when China was still anEmpire, and the name of the then late Prime Minister did begin with the letter B.1943
CHAPTER I
APPEARANCE AND REALITY
IS there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable man coulddoubt it? This question, which at first sight might not seem difficult, is really one of themost difficult that can be asked. When we have realized the obstacles in the way of astraightforward and confident answer, we shall be well launched on the study of philosophy -- for philosophy is merely the attempt to answer such ultimate questions, notcarelessly and dogmatically, as we do in ordinary life and even in the sciences, butcritically after exploring all that makes such questions puzzling, and after realizing all thevagueness and confusion that underlie our ordinary ideas.In daily life, we assume as certain many things which, on a closer scrutiny, are found tobe so full of apparent contradictions that only a great amount of thought enables us toknow what it is that we really may believe. In the search for certainty, it is natural tobegin with our present experiences, and in some sense, no doubt, knowledge is to bederived from them. But any statement as to what it is that our immediate experiencesmake us know is very likely to be wrong. It seems to me that I am now sitting in a chair,at a table of a certain shape, on which I see sheets of paper with writing or print. Byturning my head I see out of the window buildings and clouds and the sun. I believe thatthe sun is about ninety-three million miles from the earth; that it is a hot globe manytimes bigger than the earth; that, owing to the earth's rotation, it rises every morning, andwill continue to do so for an indefinite time in the future. I believe that, if any othernormal person comes into my room, he will see the same chairs and tables and books andpapers as I see, and that the table which I see is the same as the table which I feel

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