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Table Of Contents

2.1 TENSILE STRENGTH
2.1.1 Modulus ofElasticity
2.1.2 Proportional Limit
2.1.3 Yield Strength, Sy
2.1.4 Ultimate Strength, Su
2.1.5 Stresses at Skewed Plane
2.1.6 Maximum ShearStress, Ss,max
2.1.7 Principal Stresses
2.2 ELASTIC RELATIONSIDP OF STRESS AND STRAIN
2.2.1 Poisson's Ratio
2.2.2 Shear Strain and Modulus ofRigidity
2.3 STATIC EQUILmRIUM
2.3.1 Free-Body Diagram
2.3.2 Static Equilibrium
2.4 STRESSES DUE TO MOMENTS
2.4.1 Stresses due to Bending Moments
2.4.2 Moment ofInertia
2.6.4 Stress Intensity (Tresca Stress)
2.7 BASIC BEAM FORMULAS
2.6.5 Effective Stress (von Mises Stress)
2.8 ANALYSIS OF PIPING ASSEMBLY
2.7.1 Guided Cantilever
2.8.1 Finite Element
2.8.2 Data Points and Node Points
2.8.3 Piping Assembly
THERMAL EXPANSIONAND PIPING FLEXIBILITY
3.1 THERMAL EXPANSION FORCE AND STRESS
3.1.1 Ideal Anchor Evaluation
3.1.2 The Real Anchor
3.2 METHODS OF PROVIDING FLEXffiILITY
3.2.1 Estimating Leg Length Required
3.2.3 Caution Regarding Quick Check Formulas
3.2.2 Inherent Flexibility
3.2.4 Wall Thickness and Thermal Expansion Stress
3.3 SELF-LIMITING STRESS
3.4 .STRESS INTENSIFICATION AND FLEXffiILITY FACTORS
3.3.1 Elastic Equivalent Stress
3.4.1 Ovalization of Curved Pipes
3.5 ALLOWABLE THERMAL EXPANSION STRESS RANGE
3.6 COLDSPRING
3.6.1 Cold Spring Gap
3.6.2 Location ofCold Spring Gap
3.6.3 Cold Spring Procedure
3.6.4 Multi-Branched System
3.6.5 Analysis ofCold Sprung Piping System
3.7 PRESSURE EFFECTS ON PIPING FLEXIBILITY
3.7.1 Pressure Elongation
3.7.2 Potential Twisting at Bends
3.7.3 Pressure Elongation Is Self-Limiting Load
3.7.4. Pressure Effect on Bend Flexibility and SIFs
3.8.1 Operating Modes
3.8 GENERAL PROCEDURE OF PIPING FLEXffiILITY ANALYSIS
3.8.3 Assignments ofOperating Values
3.8.2 Anchor Movements
3.8.4 Handling ofPiping Components
3.8.5 The Analysis
3.9 PROBLEMS WITH EXCESSIVE FLEXIBILITY
3.9.1 Problems Associated With Excessive Flexibility
3.10 FIELD PROVEN SYSTEMS
CODE STRESS REQUIREMENTS
4.1 "DESIGN" CHAPTER OF THE PIPING CODES
4.2 LOADINGS TOBE CONSIDERED
4.2.2 Temperature
4.2.1 Pressure
4.2.3 Weight Effects
4.2.4 Wind Load
4.2.5 Earthquake
4.2.6 Dyuamic Fluid Loads
4.2.7 Harmonic Anchor Displacement Loads
4.2.8 Passive Loads
4.3 BASIC ALLOWABLE STRESSES
4.3.1 Bases for Establishing Allowable Stresses
4.3.2 Code Allowable Stress Tables
4.3.3 Weld Strength Reduction Factor
4.4 PRESSURE DESIGN
4.4.1 StraightPipe
4.4.2 Curved Segment ofPipe
4.4.3 Miter Bends
4.4.4 Branch Connections
4.4.5 Pressure Design for Other Components
4.5 STRESSES OF PIPING COMPONENTS
4.5.1 Calculations ofComponent Stresses
4.5.2 Sustained Stresses
4.5.3 Occasional Stresses
4.5.4 Thermal Expansion and Displacement Stress Range
4.5.5 Code Stress Compliance Report
4.6 CLASS 1NUCLEARPIPING
DISCONTINUITYSTRESSES
5.5 EFFECTIVE WIDTHS
5.6 CHOKINGMODEL
9.5.2 Basic Piping Support Schemes
9.5.3 Non-API Pumps
9.5.4 API Standard 610 Pumps
9.6 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS
9.7 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS AND PUMPS
9.7.1 Pulsating Flow
9.7.2 Pulsation Pressure
9.7.3 Pulsation Dampener for Reciprocating Pumps
9.7.4 Some Notes on Piping Connected to Reciprocating Machine
9.8 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SOME TECHNIQUES USED IN REDUCING PIPING LOADS
9.8.1 Excessive Flexibility
9.8.2 Improper Expansion Joint Installations
9.8.3 Theoretical Restraints
9.9 EXAMPLE PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING ROTATION EQUIPMENT PIPING
10.1 GOVERNING CODES AND GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
10.1.1 B31.4 Liquid Petroleum Pipeline
10.1.2 B31.8 Gas Transmission Pipeline
10.2 BEHAVIOR OF LONG PIPELINE
10.2.1 Pressure Elongation
10.2.2 Anchor Force
10.2.3 Potential Movement ofFree Ends
10.2.5 Stresses at Fully Restrained Section
10.2.4 Movement ofRestrained Ends
10.3 PIPELINE BENDS
10.4 BASIC ELEMENTS OF SOIL MECHANICS
10.4.1 Types ofSoils
10.4.2 Friction Angle
iO.4.3 Shearing Stress
10.4.4 Soil Resistance Against Axial Pipe Movement
10.4.5 Lateral Soil Force
10.4.6 Soil-Pipe Interaction
10.5 EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS OF BASIC PIPELINE BEHAVIORS
10.5.1 Basic Calculations
10.5.2 Soil-Pipe Interaction
10.6 SIMULATION OFSOIL RESISTANCE
10.7 BEHAVIOROFLARGEBENDS
10.8 CONSTRUCTIONOFANALYTICALMODEL
10.9 ANCHOR AND DRAG ANCHOR
SPECIAL THERMAL PROBLEMS
11.1 THERMAL BOWING
11.1.1 Displacement and Stress Produced by Thermal Bowing
11.1.2 Internal Thermal S t r e s s e ~ Generated by Bowing Temperature
11.1.3 Occurrences ofThermal Bowing
11.1.4 The Problem Created by a Tiny Line
11.2 REFRACTORY LINED PIPE
11.2.1 Equivalent Modulus ofElasticity
11.2.2 Hot-Cold Pipe Junction
11.3 UN-INSULATED FLANGE CONNECTIONS
11.4 UNMATCHED SMALL BRANCH CONNECTIONS
11.5 SOCKET·WELDED CONNECTIONS
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS - PART 1: SDOFSYSTEMS AND BASICS
12.1 IMPACT AND DYNAMIC LOAD FACTOR
12.2 SDOFSTRUCTURES
12.2.1 Working Formula for SDOF Systems
12.2.2 Un-Damped SDOF Systems
12.2.3 Damped SDOF Systems
12.2.4 Summary ofthe Characteristics ofSDOF Vibration
12.4 SONIC VELOCITY VERSUS FLOW VELOCITY
12.4.1 Sonic Velocity
12.7 STEAM TURBINE TRIP LOAD
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS - PART 2: MDOFSYSTEMS AND ApPLICATIONS
13.1 LUMPED-MASS MULTI-DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS
13.1.1 Mass Lumping
13.1.2 Free Vibration and Modal Superposition
13.2 PIPINGSUBJECTTO GROUND MOTION
13.2.1 Response Spectra Method
13.2.2 Combination ofResponse Spectra Analysis Results
13.2.3 Comparison ofModal Combination Methods
13.2.4 Puzzles ofAbsolute Closely Spaced Modal Combination
13.2.5 Compensation for the Higher Modes Truncated
13.2.6 Design Response Spectra
13.3 ACCOUNT FOR UNCERTAINTIES
13.4 STEADY-STATE VIBRATION AND HARMONIC ANALYSIS
13.4.1 Basic Vibration Patterns
13.4.2 Allowable Vibration Displacement and Velocity
13.4.3 Formulation ofHarmonic Analysis
13.4.4 Evaluation ofVibration Stress
13.5 TIME-HISTORY ANALYSIS
13.5.1 Treatment ofDamping
13.5.2 Integration Schemes
13.5.4 Example Time-History Analysis
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Pipe Stress Engineering

Pipe Stress Engineering

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Published by Michele Di Sclafani

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Published by: Michele Di Sclafani on Apr 30, 2012
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12/26/2013

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