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Comparison of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Development Theories A

Comparison of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Development Theories A

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Published by Lily Sugianto

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Published by: Lily Sugianto on Apr 30, 2012
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of Sexual
and Gender Identity
Development Theories
Stage Models of Sexual OrientationIdentity Development Life Span and Other Nonlinear Models of Sexual OrientationIdentity Development DiversePerspectives onSexual Orientationand Gender Identity Medical and Psychiatric Perspectives onGender Identity 
Feminist,Postmodern and Queer Perspectives onGender Identity 
Examples of Theorists of models
Cass, Fassinger,Savin- Williams,TroidenD’Augelli, Fox,Klein, RhoadsBoykin, L. S.Brown, Clare,Diaz, Raffo,WilsonDiagnostic andStatistical Manualof MentalDisorders, FourthEdition, TextRevision; HarryBenjaminStandards of CareButler, Creed,Feinberg,Halberstam,Wilchins
Generalcharacteristicsof models
Linear progressionfromlack of awarenessof Sexual orientationthrough immersionin identity tointegration of identity.Focus onspecificprocesses of identitydevelopmentwithinsocioculturaland life spancontext.Describe LGBTidentityand developmentin relation toother psychosocialidentities (gender,race, culture,class, ability, andso on).Posit “normal” genderidentity as that inwhich genderidentitycorresponds intraditional ways tobiological sex;transgenderismand transsexualityare viewed aspsychiatricdisorders.Posit genderidentityas sociallyconstructedwithin system of power based ongender, race,class, sexualorientation,ability, and othersociallyconstructedcategories.
Samples onwhich modelswere based
General adultpopulation, clinicalor incarceratedpopulations (Cass)Collegestudents,general adultpopulationSubpopulations of adults,adolescents,college studentsClinicalpopulationsNone; scholarshipand theories nottypically derivedfrom empiricalresearch
Strengths of 
Offer parallel
Account for
Provide legal
Account for
1 |Page
these modelsfor highereducationpractice
theories of humandevelopment(such as Erikson,1950) inprogression fromless to morecomplex ways of understandingself and society
Conceptualizedevelopment in away that can beunderstood andapplied incampus settingscontext of identitydevelopment
Illuminateprocesses aswell asoutcomes of identitydevelopment
Some weredevelopedspecific tocollegecontexttheoretical basisforunderstandingLGBT identity inmulticulturalcontexts
Challengeuniversalizednotions of LGBTidentity
Supportdevelopment of programs andservices thatmeet needs of diverse studentpopulationsbasis forprovision of services totransgenderindividuals underthe Americanswith DisabilitiesActcontext of identitydevelopment
Illuminatepsychosocialelements of collegeenvironmentthat mayinfluence genderidentity
Account forstructuraldifferences inpower
Criticisms of these models
Appear toprescribe auniversal lineardevelopmentaltrajectory thatdoes not fit theexperience of many individuals
Imply anendpoint andappear to valueachievement of that endpoint asmost healthyoutcome of identitydevelopment
Many are notspecific tocollegeenvironmentor experience
Many weredevelopedwith smallempiricalsamples orwere notbased onempirical data
Some appear toassume fixednotions of sociallyconstructedcategories(gender, race,class, and soon) anduniversality of experience of LGBT peoplewithin thosecategories
Many weredeveloped withsmall empirical
Appear to ignoresocial contextsof genderidentitydevelopmentand enactment
Tend topathologize asmentally illindividualswhose genderidentity does notconform to theirbiological sex
Most are notspecific tocollege
Do not providetheoreticalbackground onidentitydevelopment perse
Most are notspecific tocollegeenvironment orexperience
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