Human Genome Project and DNA Fingerprinting
Human Genome Project:
Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the study of heredity andvariation.
The most advancement in the field of genetics is the Human Genome Project(HGP). It was a 13-year mega project coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. During the early years of the HGP,the Wellcome Trust (U.K.) became a major partner.Apart from that, additional contributions came from Japan, France, Germany,China, and others. It was accomplished in the year 2003.The goals of the HGP were
Determining the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that constitutehuman DNA.
identifying all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA,
storing all this information in databases,
improving tools for data analysis,
transferring related technologies to the private sector, and
Addressing the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from theproject.Though the HGP is finished, analyses of the data are still continuing for many years.
Importance of Genome:
Genome is the entire DNA in an organism, including its genes. Genes carry informationfor making all the proteins required by all organisms. These proteins determine, amongother things, how the organism looks, how well its body metabolizes food or fightsinfection, and sometimes even how it behaves.DNA is made up of four similar chemicals (called bases and abbreviated A, T, C, and G)that are repeated millions or billions of times throughout a genome. The human genome,for example, has 3 billion pairs of bases. Assigning the genetic and physical maps on thegenome is the next challenging task where researches are under progress.Many non – human experimental organisms like yeast, bacteria, Drosophila (fruit fly),
(a free living nematode) have been sequenced for their genomes.
DNA finger printing:
The differences in the sequences of DNA give every individual unique in their phenotypicappearance. DNA finger printing is the technique which involves the identification of