Compare Physical and Chemical Changes and Give examples of each. Physical changesare changes in which the identity of a substance doesn’t change. However, thearrangement, location, and speed of the particles that make up the substance may change.Example: As sugar dissolves in tea, the sugar molecules mix with the tea, but they don’tchange what they are. The particles are still sugar. Crushing a rock is a physical change because particles separate but do not change identity. Chemical Changes are when theidentities of substances change and new substances form. Evidence that a chemicalchange might take place:a.Evolution of a Gas-bubbling b.The formation of Precipitate-two clear substances mixed—becomes cloudyc.The Release or absorption of Energy-change in temperature or signs of energy being transferred.d.A color change-different color when chemicals reactExplain the parts of a chemical equation. In an equation the substances on the left handside of the arrow are the reactants. Substances on the right hand side of the arrow are products. Example: mercury (II) oxide
mercury+oxygenList the metric measurements and their units used in chemistry. Matter is anything thathas mass and takes up space. Volume-a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space. Mass-measurement of the amount of matter in an object. Weight-ameasure of the gravitational force exerted on an object. Quantity-something that hasmagnitude, size, or amount. Unit-a quantity adopted as a standard of measurement.Conversion factor-a ratio hat is derived from the equality of two different units and thatcan be used to convert from one unit to the other.Calculate the Density of an object. Density=Mass/VolumeDiscuss the parts of the scientific method. First form a hypothesis, then makeobservations, then analyze the results of the experiment, then draw conclusions, then ask yourself—Do they support your hypothesis—if yes then publish results and thenconstruct a theory. A theory is an explanation for some phenomenon that is based onobservation, experimentation, and reasoning. A law is a summary of many experimentalresults and observations; a law tells how things work. The law of conservation of mass isthe law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes. Models also help when illustrating a concept in the microscopic worldof chemistry.Compare accuracy and precision. Accuracy is a description of how close a measurementis to the true value of the quantity measured. Precision is the exactness of a measurement.State the rules used for significant figures and use them correctly. Significant figures are prescribed decimal place that determines the amount of rounding off to be done based onthe precision of the measurement.List the tenets of Dalton’s Atomic Theory. According to Dalton, elements are composedof only one kind of atom and compounds are made from two or more kinds of atoms.Dalton also reasoned that only whole numbers of atoms could combine to for mcompounds, such as iodine monochloride. Contains five principles:1.All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms whichcannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed.2.Atoms of a given element are identical in their physical and chemical properties.