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Review for Cornell's History Exam

Review for Cornell's History Exam

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Published by: knakni1 on May 01, 2012
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04/29/2013

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1.
 
What shaped the mood of the American people during the 1950s?-
 
By booming national prosperity and the continuing struggle against the expansion of communism.2.
 
What developments caused the economic expansion of the 1950s and the early 1960s?-
 
Government spending-
 
Suburban growth-
 
Population growth-
 
Favorable climate3.
 
What economical governmental tool was promoted by the New Economics of the 1950s and 1960s?-
 
Cutting taxes to stimulate growth4.
 
Why were relations between the AFL and CIO uneasy in the 1950s?-
 
AFL dominant and still suspicious if radical past of CIO5.
 
What developments led to a consumer culture in the 1950s?-
 
Credit cards and easy payment plans-
 
Ability of advertisers to create demand for new products-
 
Connection between T.V. and marketing-
 
Appearance of new and varied products6.
 
What contributed to the growth of suburbs?-
 
Renewed emphasis on family life following years of war during which families had often been separated ordisrupted.-
 
Mass production techniques that provided inexpensive homes-
 
The desire to escape the integration of urban neighborhoods and schools-
 
An increase in affluence that caused major growth of the middle-class7.
 
Within the suburban family, what pressures did many affluent women experience?-
 
Emphasis on family life-
 
Demand to concentrate on domestic duties-
 
Increased isolation from workplace-
 
Many husbands felt it was demeaning for a wife to be employed8.
 
By the late 1950s, what had television replaced?-
 
Replaced other media to become most important vehicle of communication9.
 
During the late 1950s, what resulted from the development of large-scale organizations and bureaucracies?-
 
More white-collar than blue10.
 
**What was made worse by the development of inner-city ghettos in the 1950s?-
 
The lack of strong educational service institutions-
 
The migration of many poor people to the cities-
 
The decrease in the number of unskilled jobs in American industry-
 
The destruction of low-income housing in many urban renewal programs11.
 
What slogan and policy was closely associated with the term “massive resistance”?
 -
 
With southern resistance to forced busing and integration12.
 
What was the final outcome of the bus boycott triggered by the arrest of Rosa Parks?-
 
Bus line was desegregated because the Supreme Court declared segregation on public transportation illegal13.
 
What had Republican businessmen of the 1950s come to accept despite the traditional opposition of Republicans?-
 
The Keynesian welfare state as a device that helped: maintain social order, stabilize labor relations, andmaintain consumers purchasing power
 
14.
 
When did Senator Joe McCarthy lose most of his power and popularity?-
 
Consistently avoided raising substantial issues-
 
Failed to prove any of his charges in the hearings involving the army-
 
Employed cruel methods against his opponents while on television-
 
Was condemned b
y the Senate for “conduct unbecoming a sena
tor15.
 
What was the new policy of Eisenhower’s secretary of state, John Foster Dulles?
 -
 
A new policy of “massive retaliation,” threatening the use of nuclear weapons to counter communist
aggression16.
 
What took place
after the declaration of Israel’s independence?
 -
 
Culmination of years of Zionists’ efforts
 -
 
Soviet Union began its support of Fidel Castro-
 
First of several Arab-Israeli wars began-
 
President Harry S. Truman recognized the new country the next day17.
 
What actions
were included in the Eisenhower administration’s Cold War policies?
 -
 
Landing of marines at Beirut to protect the existing regime from a possible coup-
 
Severing of diplomatic relations with Cuba-
 
Use of CIA to help stage a coup to overthrow the nationalistic prime minister of Iran and replace him with apro-American leader-
 
Withdrawal of offers to Egypt to build the Aswan Dam across the Nile as punishment for that Governmentsfriendliness toward the Soviet Union18.
 
When the Soviet Union shot down a U-2 aircraft o
ver its country, what was Khrushcev’s reaction to the incident?
 -
 
That he needed to break off the Paris summit discussions concerning Berlin19.
 
What issues were at the center of Johnson’s domestic program?
 -
 
Social welfare and economic strength20.
 
When did the Office of Economic Opportunity create a controversy?-
 
When it sought to involve members of the poor communities through its commitment to “CommunityAction”
 21.
 
What did the provision in the reforms of the Immigration Act of 1965 include?-
 
A provision requiring that
the “national origins” system be eliminated by putting a cap on number of 
newcomers admitted each year.22.
 
What were the causes of the high budget deficits of the Great Society?-
 
High costs, deficiencies, and failures of many programs, along with the inability of federal government tofind revenues.23.
 
What action did President Kennedy take following the racial violence in Alabama and Mississippi in 1962 and1963?-
 
Introduced legislation to end segregation in public accommodations24.
 
What developments resulted from th
e tenets of the “black power” philoso
phy?-
 
Exclude sympathetic whites from the movement-
 
Emergence of the Black Panthers-
 
Increase in young people choosing radical alternatives25.
 
Where did Kennedy believe the future struggle against communism would occur?-
 
Mainly in the developing countries of the third world26.
 
What did success for the 1961 American-aided invasion of Cuba depend on?-
 
An anti-Castro uprising in Cuba
 
27.
 
What did the First Indochina War result from?-
 
French decision to retake colony after WWII28.
 
**When did the American commitment in Vietnam substantially increase?-
 
Early 1960s29.
 
**What steps were taken that led to the escalation of the Vietnam War in the 1960s?30.
 
**What was the primary reason the United States could not fully win the Vietnam War?-
 
Opposition to war and war-induced inflation31.
 
**What events took place in 1968?-
 
Growing controversy over the war in Vietnam-
 
Assassinations of MLK Jr. and Robert Kennedy-
 
Racial unrest in the nation’s cities
 -
 
Students protests on campuses throughout America32.
 
Whose assassination resulted in massive racial unrest and rioting erupting in more than sixty American cities in1968?-
 
Martin Luther King Jr.33.
 
What possibility was raised in the 1985 case of County of Oneida Indian Nation Supreme Court’s decision?
 -
 
That Native Americans might reclaim land lost when the federal government violated old treaties34.
 
When did Cesar Chavez, leader of the United Farm Workers (UFW), obtain a victory for itinerant workers?-
 
When some California grape growers signed a contract with the UWF35.
 
In rejecting
the concept of the “melting pot,” what ideas did many minority groups begin to argue for?
 -
 
A culturally pluralist society-
 
Affirmative action programs-
 
Ethnic studies programs-
 
A renewed emphasis on cultural identity36.
 
What significant beginning is marked by th
e “Stonewall Riot” in New York City in 1969?
 -
 
The gay liberation movement in 196937.
 
What idea did Betty Friedan argue for in her book “The Feminine Mystique”?
 -
 
The “ideal life” of the suburban housewife were often not fulfilled individuals
 38.
 
What did the National Organization for Women (NOW) mainly direct its efforts toward helping in the earlyyears?-
 
Assisting women in the workplace39.
 
What did the Supreme Court decision in the 1973 case of Roe v. Wade state?-
 
That under the Constitutionally guaranteed “right to privacy,” all state laws prohibiting abortion during the“first trimester” of pregnancy were invalid
 40.
 
What did the “new science” of ecology that emerged after World War II emphasize?
 -
 
The importance of interrelatedness of the world’s environment
 41.
 
By the 1960s, what was the major force behind the environmental movement?-
 
The poor condition of the environment itself 42.
 
What did Jimmy Carter say in his “malaise” speech?
 -
 
That America was experiencing a “crisis of confidence” and needed to decrease its dependence on forei
gnoil.43.
 
What resulted from President Carter’s diplomatic efforts in relieving the tensions between Egypt and Israel?
 -
 
A formal peace treaty between Egypt and Israel

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