17During inherent borondilution in the scenariodescribed in the introduction,the slug that accumulate in theloop could have a higher temperature and a lower density. Additionally the boron content influences thefluid density. In ROCOM thisdensity difference is adjusted by the addition of ethylalcohol. Additionally, thefluid is tracered by addingminimum elements of salt,which do not affect thedensity.The acquisition of the concentration fields is performed with high spatial and temporalresolution measurements of the tracer concentration. For that purpose FZR applies self developed wire mesh sensors which measure the electrical conductivity between twoorthogonal electrode grids .Beside the measurements in the cold legs, two further wire-mesh sensors with 4 radial and 64azimuthal measuring positions in the lower and upper downcomer and with 193 conductivitymeasurements at the core inlet were applied to the test facility. All sensors provide 200images per second. Because a measuring frequency of 20 Hz is sufficient, ten successiveimages are averaged into one conductivity distribution. The measured conductivity values aretransformed into a dimensionless mixing scalar
(t). It is calculated by relating the localinstantaneous conductivity
(t) to the amplitude of the conductivity change in the cold legof the loops with the slugs.
σ σ σ σ
z y x z y x
represents the contribution of the coolant from the initial slugs to the mixture at the given position x,y,z. The upper reference value
in (1) is the conductivity in the initial slugs between the gate valves. The lower reference value
is the initial conductivity of the water in the test facility before the valves are opened. More details about the facility, themeasurement devices, and the experiments performed earlier can be found in .
3. The experiments
Based on ATHLET-calculations in , the following boundary conditions were defined for the experiments: Two loops are working at a stationary level of 5 % of the nominal flow rate.A slug of de-borated water is located in both of the resting loops between the gate valves. Thevolume of these de-borated slugs corresponds to the volume of the whole loop seal and a partof the steam generator outlet chamber. This is 7.2 m
in each loop. In these loops, thecirculation starts simultaneously and reaches a value of 6 % of the nominal flow rate. Threedifferent flow ramps were considered (see table 1). Further, according to the thermo-hydraulic
Fig. 1: Scheme of the ROCOM test facility
Loop 1Loop 4Loop 2PumpRPVLoop 3