Art History Exam 3
Alamin/ Muhammad (c. 576-632)
refers to the Universe or Worlds, or all that exists /recipient of the revelations of the Quran between 610 and 622 CE, founder of the religion of Islam. Muslims consider him to be the last prophet of God, but unlike Jesus Christ, not divine.
literally means to submit
flight in 622 Muhammad flees Mecca for Madina / returns in 622 with army
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Hijja; at leastonce in a lifetime a Muslim is expected to make a religious journey to Mecca and the Kaaba; "fora Muslim the hajj is the ultimate act of worship"
Kaaba - cubeUmayaad Dynasty (661-750) -
This dynasty headed the Arab empire from 661 to 750; itscapital was at Damascus. The 'Abbasid dynasty then took power./ last flees to Spain
Aniconism - anti- iconism Ababesque -
designs inspired by nature/ organic
early calligraphy / named after city Kufa
Mosque/ Minaret/ Quibla -
a Muslim place of worship/ slender tower with balconies/ thedirection that should be faced when a Muslim prays during Salah
Mihrab/ Minbar - niche/ pulpit where priest stands Horshoe/ Pointed Arch Muqarnas -
a type of corbel used as a decorative device in traditional Islamic and Persianarchitecture.
Mirador Squinch -
a piece of construction used for filling in the upper angles of a square room so as toform a proper base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome.
pottery with a metallic sheen produced by adding metallic oxides to the glaze
Carolingian Renaissance -
was a period of intellectual and cultural revival occurring in thelate eighth and ninth centuries, with the peak of the activities occurring during the reigns of theCarolingian rulers Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.
Charles the great r. 768-814/ “holy roman emperor” - used monasticism forreform to provide education
Benedictines/ St Benedict of Nursia c. 480-547-
refers to the spirituality and consecratedlife in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict/ Italian monk who founded the Benedictine orderabout 540 (480-547)
Rule of St. Benedict -
rule of monastaries/
is a book of precepts written by St. Benedict of Nursia for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot. Since about the 7thcentury it has also been adopted by communities of women.
is the monumental, west-facing entrance section of a Carolingian, Ottonian, orRomanesque church. The exterior consists of multiple storeys between two towers.
Majuscles/ Miniscules - uppercase/ lowercase and spaces between words Repousse -
is a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is ornamented or shaped by hammering from the reverse side.
“Gripping Beasts” -
detail on Oseberg viking ship
An ongoing reform movement in the Catholic Church generally regarded as beginning about the middle of the 4th century. It was an attempt to live a stricter, more"apostolic" form of Christianity through prayer, manual labor, and asceticism/
a style of architecture developed in Italy and western Europe between theRoman and the Gothic styles after 1000 AD; characterized by round arches and vaults and by the substitution of piers for columns and profuse ornament and arcades