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Art Exam 3

Art Exam 3

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Published by: Amy Nicole Callaway on May 02, 2012
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 Art History Exam 3
 Vocabulary 
 Alamin/ Muhammad (c. 576-632)
refers to the Universe or Worlds, or all that exists /recipient of the revelations of the Quran between 610 and 622 CE, founder of the religion of Islam. Muslims consider him to be the last prophet of God, but unlike Jesus Christ, not divine.
 Islam -
literally means to submit
Qu’ran -
holy scripture
 Hijira -
flight in 622 Muhammad flees Mecca for Madina / returns in 622 with army 
 Hajj -
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Hijja; at leastonce in a lifetime a Muslim is expected to make a religious journey to Mecca and the Kaaba; "fora Muslim the hajj is the ultimate act of worship"
 Kaaba - cubeUmayaad Dynasty (661-750) -
This dynasty headed the Arab empire from 661 to 750; itscapital was at Damascus. The 'Abbasid dynasty then took power./ last flees to Spain
 Aniconism - anti- iconism Ababesque -
designs inspired by nature/ organic
Calligraphy -
 beautiful handwriting
 Kufic -
early calligraphy / named after city Kufa
 Mosque/ Minaret/ Quibla -
a Muslim place of worship/ slender tower with balconies/ thedirection that should be faced when a Muslim prays during Salah
 Mihrab/ Minbar - niche/ pulpit where priest stands Horshoe/ Pointed Arch Muqarnas -
a type of corbel used as a decorative device in traditional Islamic and Persianarchitecture.
 Mirador  Squinch -
a piece of construction used for filling in the upper angles of a square room so as toform a proper base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome.
 Lusterware -
pottery with a metallic sheen produced by adding metallic oxides to the glaze
Carolingian Renaissance -
 was a period of intellectual and cultural revival occurring in thelate eighth and ninth centuries, with the peak of the activities occurring during the reigns of theCarolingian rulers Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.
Charlemange -
Charles the great r. 768-814/ “holy roman emperor” - used monasticism forreform to provide education
 Benedictines/ St Benedict of Nursia c. 480-547-
refers to the spirituality and consecratedlife in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict/ Italian monk who founded the Benedictine orderabout 540 (480-547)
 Rule of St. Benedict -
rule of monastaries/ 
is a book of precepts written by St. Benedict of Nursia for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot. Since about the 7thcentury it has also been adopted by communities of women.
Westwork -
is the monumental, west-facing entrance section of a Carolingian, Ottonian, orRomanesque church. The exterior consists of multiple storeys between two towers.
 Majuscles/ Miniscules - uppercase/ lowercase and spaces between words Repousse -
is a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is ornamented or shaped by hammering from the reverse side.
“Gripping Beasts” -
detail on Oseberg viking ship
 Monastacism -
 An ongoing reform movement in the Catholic Church generally regarded as beginning about the middle of the 4th century. It was an attempt to live a stricter, more"apostolic" form of Christianity through prayer, manual labor, and asceticism/
 poverty, chastity,obedience/ 
 Romanesque -
a style of architecture developed in Italy and western Europe between theRoman and the Gothic styles after 1000 AD; characterized by round arches and vaults and by the substitution of piers for columns and profuse ornament and arcades
 
Tranverse Arch/ Rib -
crosses nave at 45 degree angle - An arch that supports the main vaultand connects the nave walls.
Compound Pier -
 A pier with a group, or cluster, of attached shafts, or responds, especially characteristic of Gothic architecture.
Crossing/ Lantern/ Arcade
 where transept and nave intersect/ dome to let in light/
 Radiating Chapels
- held relics
 Portal - Tympanum/ Jamb/ Voussoir/ Archivolt -
 A triangular space between an archand the horizontal bar of a portal or window (lintel), often decorated with sculpture/ the verticalportion of the frame onto which a door is secured/ an ornamental molding or band following thecurve of the underside of an arch
 Amery PicavGislebertus -
 was a FrenchRomanesque sculptor, whose decoration (about 1120-1135) of the Cathedral of Saint Lazareat  Autun, France- consisting of numerous doorways, tympanums, and capitals - represents some of the most original work of the period
 Historiated Capital -
romanesque innovation/ start to carve capitals to tell a story 
Undercutting -
gives dimension, makes it seem round/
 
cut away material from the undersideof (an object) so as to leave an overhanging portion in relief 
 HellmouthGothic
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries; characterized by slender vertical piers andcounterbalancing buttresses and by vaulting and pointed arches
 Abbot Suger 
(c. 1081 - 13 January 1151) was one of the last French abbot-statesmen, ahistorian, and the influential first patron of Gothic architecture.
 Rib Vaulting/ Pointed Arch (Lancet)
a vault with bands of projecting stonework along theangles or groins/ an arch with a pointed apex; characteristic of Gothic architecture
 Buttress/ Flying Buttress
a support usually of stone or brick; supports the wall of a building/ stands apart from the main structure and connected to it by an arch
 Stained Glass/ Cames
glass that has been colored in some way; used for church windows/ A came is a divider bar used between small pieces of glass to make a larger glazing panel,sometimes referred to as leaded glass.
 Rose Window
 A large round window on the west façade or transept, containing tracery that became more elaborate as the Gothic era progressed (fig.2, C). Beautiful examples occur atNotre-Dame in Paris and Chartres.
Colonette/ Triforium
a small, slender column that is usually decorative/ shallow gallery of arches within the thickness of inner wall, which stands above the nave in a church or cathedral.
 Rayonnant Style
a term used to describe a period in the development of French Gothicarchitecture, ca. 1240-1350
 Fleur-Di-Lis
symbol of France
 St DenisChartres
a town in northern France that is noted for its Gothic Cathedral
 Aryans/ Indus Valley
 was a Bronze Age civilization (mature period 2600–1900 BCE) which was centred mostly in the western part of the Indian Subcontinent and which flourished aroundthe Indus river basin.
Vedas
are a large body of texts originating in Ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, thetexts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.
 Siddharta Gautama/ Buddhism
 was a spiritual teacher in the north eastern region of theIndian subcontinent who founded Buddhism./ the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and thatenlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one fromdesire and suffering and rebirth
 Nirvana/ Samsara
the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation; characterized by the extinction of desire and suffering and individual consciousness/ the endless cycle of birthand suffering and death and rebirth
 
 Art History Exam 3
Urna/ Ushnisha/ Mudra
is a spiral or circular dot placed on the forehead of Buddhist imagesas an auspicious mark. It symbolizes a third eye, which in turn symbolizes vision into the divine world; a sort of ability to see past our mundane universe of suffering./ is a three dimensionaloval at the top of the head of the Buddha. It symbolizes his attainment of reliance in the spiritualguide./ ritual hand movement in Hindu religious dancing
 Maurya Period 
 was a geographically extensive and powerful empire in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC
 Ashoka
popularly known as Ashoka the Great', was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty  who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from 269 BC to 232 BC.
 Axis Mundi
is a ubiquitous symbol that crosses human cultures. The image expresses a pointof connection between sky and earth where the four compass directions meet
Chakra
is a Sanskrit word that translates as "wheel" or "turning"
 Stupa
a dome-shaped shrine erected by Buddhists
 Mandala/ Torana
any of various geometric designs (usually circular) symbolizing theuniverse; used chiefly in Hinduism and Buddhism as an aid to meditation/ is a type of gateway seen in the Hindu and Buddhist architecture of the Indian subcontinent.
Yakshi/ Yaksha
lesser local male and female Buddhist and Hindu divinities. Yakshis aregoddess associated with fertility and vegetation. Yaksha, the male equivelent of yakshis, areoften represented as fleshy but powerful males
Chaitya Hall  Dharma/ Chakara
 basic principles of the cosmos; also: an ancient sage in Hindu mythology  worshipped as a god by some lower castes;
 Four Noble Truths
(1) Pain is universal, (2) the cause of pain is greed, (3) the source of greedis illusoriness, (4) following the Eightfold Path leads to the cessation of pain, greed, and illusionand takes the ascended into gladness.
 Mudkas Africa
the second largest continent; located to the south of Europe and bordered to the west by the South Atlantic and to the east by the Indian Ocean
 Add Fig 13-2;13-3 Nok
culture appeared in Nigeria around 1000 B.C. and mysteriously vanished around 200 ADin the region of West Africa. This region lies in Central Nigeria. The culture’s social system isthought to have been highly advanced
 Ife/ Yoruba
is an ancient Yoruba city in south-western Nigeria. Evidence of urbanization at thesite has been discovered to date back to roughly 500 AD. It is located in present day Osun State, with a population of 501,952./
Oni
Represent the king
 Scarification
involves scratching, etching, or some sort of superficial cutting or incision as apermanent body modification, etching designs, pictures, or words into the skin.
 Benin
a country on western coast of Africa; formerly under French control
Oba Iyoba
The position of queen mother in Benin; A bronze effigy of the head of such a person
 Djenne
is a historically and commercially important small town in the Inland Niger Delta of central Mali. It has an ethnically diverse population of about 12,000 (in 1987).
Toron
now Tibnin or Tebnine in southern Lebanon, was a major Crusader castle, built in theLebanon mountains on the road from Tyre to Damascus.
 Adobe
is a natural building material made from sand, clay, horse manure and water, with somekind of fibrous or organic material (sticks and/or straw,), which is shaped into bricks usingframes and dried in the sun.
 Zimbabwe
a landlocked republic in south central Africa formerly called Rhodesia; achievedindependence from the United Kingdom in 1980
Islamic

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