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Table Of Contents

1.1 GreenhouSe-crop cultivation—BeneFitS and challenGeS
1.2 autoMatic control
1.3 eleMentary deScription oF the GreenhouSe-crop SySteM
1.4 MeaSureMentS and inStruMentation
1.5 decoMpoSition, FluxeS, and inForMation FlowS
1.6 General State–Space repreSentation
1.7 hierarchical coMputerized control
1.8 current StatuS oF coMputerized control
1.9 how iS thiS Book orGanized?
2Introduction to Optimal Control of Greenhouse Climate
2.1 introduction and Motivation
2.2 a SiMple illuStrative exaMple
2.3 General ForMulation oF optiMal control proBleMS
2.4 BeneFitS and diFFicultieS aSSociated with optiMal control
3.1 introduction
3.2 optiMal control theory
3.3 optiMal control alGorithMS
3.3.1 IndIrect Methods
3.3.2 dIrect Methods and control ParaMeterIzatIon
4.1 introduction
4.2 State eStiMation
4.3 linear Quadratic FeedBack
4.3.1 Feedback by recedIng horIzon control the problem of widely different time Scales
4.3.2 conclusIons
5.1 introduction
5.2 optiMal control reviSited
5.2.1 generIc ProbleM stateMent
5.2.2 oPen-looP solutIon oF the Whole ProbleM
5.2.3 the choIce oF the Weather
5.2.4 closed-looP solutIon oF the Whole ProbleM online Solution by repeated optimization
5.2.5 tIMe-scale decoMPosItIon offine Solution of the Slow Subproblem online implementation hierarchical control, Setpoint tracking explaining the difference: the Sailing analogy realizing a Given Greenhouse climate Greenhouse climate control with cost Minimization
5.4.2 Focus on strategIes drIven by sloW croP Processes optimal Strategies using dynamic optimization
5.4.3 IntegratIon, aPPlIcatIon, and IMPleMentatIon expert Systems implementation of optimal control—overview direct application of computed controls hierarchical control with Settings tracking the Slow variables—crop development integrated optimal control
5.5 diScuSSion and concluSion
6.1 introduction
6.2 ModelS
6.3 the optiMal control proBleM
6.4 optiMal control caSe StudieS
6.4.1 analysIs oF the oPtIMal control ProbleM results discussion concluding remarks
6.4.3 sensItIvIty analysIs oF the oPtIMal control ProbleM Materials and Methods results and discussion concluding remarks
6.4.4 tIMe-scale decoMPosItIon Materials and Methods results concluding remarks
6.5 concludinG reMarkS
7.1 introduction
7.2 toMato Model
7.2.1 WorkIng WIth leaves Instead oF generatIve Parts
7.2.2 assIMIlate Pool
7.2.3 leaF and FruIt bIoMass
7.2.4 losses
7.2.5 constItutIve relatIons photosynthesis Growth demand Maintenance respiration development State harvest rate
7.3 GreenhouSe cliMate Model
7.3.1 heat balances Soil
7.3.2 Mass balances water vapor in the Greenhouse air carbon dioxide in the Greenhouse air
7.4 State–Space ForM oF the coMplete GreenhouSe-crop Model
7.5 caliBration and Model reSultS
7.5.1 calIbratIon oF the bIg leaF–bIg FruIt Model
7.5.2 calIbratIon oF the heatIng PIPe and greenhouse clIMate Model
7.5.3 conclusIons about the Models
7.6 open-loop optiMization
7.6.1 ProbleM to be solved
7.6.2 Method
7.6.3 results
7.6.4 recaPItulatIon oF the oPen-looP steP
7.7 two–tiMe-Scale recedinG horizon optiMal controller (rhoc)
7.7.1 ProbleM to be solved
7.7.2 Method
7.7.3 results
7.8 evaluation oF optiMal control
7.8.1 sensItIvIty oF rhoc to ModelIng errors
7.8.2 sensItIvIty oF sloW costates to the noMInal Weather
7.8.3 sensItIvIty oF rhoc to sloW costates
7.9.1 sIMulated coMParIson initial conditions Matching the humidity constraint violation humidity penalty and heat input results
7.10 diScuSSion and concluSionS
8An Advanced Application: The Solar Greenhouse
8.1 introduction
8.2 deScription oF the Solar GreenhouSe concept
8.3 SySteM deScription
8.3.1 greenhouse conFIguratIon
8.3.2 assuMPtIons
8.4 the Solar GreenhouSe Model
8.4.1 carbon dIoxIde Model carbon dioxide Supply photosynthesis and respiration carbon dioxide transport due to ventilation carbon dioxide transport past the Screen
8.4.2 Water vaPor Model canopy transpiration condensation of water water vapor transport due to ventilation water vapor transport past the Screen
8.4.3 therMal Model convection longwave radiation absorption Shortwave radiation absorption conduction latent heat exchange
8.4.4 ModelIng the screen Screen closure heating System Boiler and condenser the aquifer heating System heat pump
8.5.1 evaPotransPIratIon
8.5.2 croP PhotosynthesIs and resPIratIon photosynthesis Model
8.5.3 teMPerature IntegratIon
8.6 SenSitivity analySiS, caliBration, and validation
8.6.1 conventIonal versus solar greenhouse Model control inputs external inputs States
8.6.2 sensItIvIty analysIs
8.6.3 ParaMeter estIMatIon
8.7 optiMal control
8.7.1 cost FunctIon derivation Bounds for aquifer energy content
8.7.2 recedIng horIzon oPtIMal control
8.7.3 control InPuts initial Guess control inputs State-dependent control input Bounds example Grid Search
8.7.4 external InPuts: the Weather PredIctIons
8.7.5 InItIal values states
8.7.6 oPtIMIzatIon Method: gradIent search
8.7.7 results rhoc WIth gradIent search a priori versus a posteriori results infuence of the Separate Solar Greenhouse elements
8.7.8 conclusIons and dIscussIon
a. solar radIatIon ParaMeters
a.1 Solar parameters
a.2 radiation parameters
b. huMIdIty ParaMeters
B.1 Saturation pressure and concentration
B.2 relative humidity
B.3 dewpoint temperature
9.1 introduction
9.2 developMentS in the GreenhouSe induStry and conSeQuenceS For control
9.2.1 recent advances In the greenhouse Industry
9.2.2 Future develoPMents In the greenhouse Industry innovations Motivated by Sustainability: water innovations Motivated Mainly by consumer demands
9.3 prereQuiSiteS For Future control SySteMS
9.3.1 deMands oF the Future
9.3.2 hoW does oPtIMal control FIt In?
9.4 challenGeS For Science and technoloGy
9.4.1 sensors and MonItorIng external input information Feedback from the crop Sensor Fusion; Soft Sensors
9.4.2 PhysIcal ModelIng lumped physical Models Moisture and condensation prediction Spatial distribution
9.4.3 croP Models crop Model process details crop development expansion of the operational range Stress and vulnerability Models crop Quality
9.4.4 ModelIng Methodology Model identifcation, calibration, and Sensitivity Model reduction parameter variability and adaptation
9.4.5 goal FunctIon Formulation of Goal Function constraints and penalties risk Stochastic variability
9.4.6 oFFlIne: dynaMIc oPtIMIzatIon Methods
9.4.7 onlIne control receding horizon optimal control adaptive receding horizon optimal control tracking necessary conditions for optimality Self-optimizing control
9.4.8 user InteractIon
9.4.9 InForMatIon and coMMunIcatIon technology
9.5 ShowStopperS For optiMal control
9.5.1 lIMItatIons In state oF the art
9.5.2 the huMan Factor: the groWer
9.5.3 huMan Factor: the control engIneer
9.5.4 levelIng the barrIers
9.6 concluSionS and perSpectiveS
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Published by Daniel Ion

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Published by: Daniel Ion on May 02, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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