Inventions in the Islamic World
Islamic Astronomy: Astronomical instruments
Muslim astronomers developed a number of astronomical instruments, includingseveral variations of the astrolabe, originally invented by Hipparchus in the 2ndcentury BCE, but with considerable improvements made to the device in theMuslim world. These instruments were used by Muslims for a variety of purposesrelated to astronomy, astrology, horoscopes, navigation, surveying,timekeeping, Qibla, Salah, etc.
Brass astrolabe by Muhammad al-Fazari in the 8th century.Earliest surviving astrolabe in 315 AH (927-928 CE).Mechanical geared astrolabe by Ibn Samh (c. 1020).Navigational astrolabe was invented in the Islamic world. It employed the use ofa polar projection system.In the 10th century, al-Sufi first described over 1000 different uses of anastrolabe, including uses in astronomy, astrology, horoscopes, navigation,surveying, timekeeping, Qibla, Salah, etc.Orthographical astrolabe by Abu Rayhan al-Biruni in the 11th century.Saphaea, a universal astrolabe for all latitudes, by Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Zarqali(Arzachel) in 11th century Islamic Spain.Zuraqi, a heliocentric astrolabe where the Earth is in motion rather than thesky, by al-Sijzi in the 11th century.Linear astrolabe ("staff of al-Tusi") by Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi in the 12th century.
Analog Machines (or Computers)
Equatorium by Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Zarqali (Arzachel) in Islamic Spain circa1015.Planisphere by Abu Rayhan al-Biruni in the 11th century.Mechanical lunisolar calendar computer with gear train and gear-wheels by AbuRayhan al-Biruni.Fixed-wired knowledge processing machine by Abu Rayhan al-Biruni.Mechanical astrolabe with calendar computer and gear-wheels by Abi Bakr ofIsfahan in 1235.Oldest surviving complete mechanical geared machine by Abi Bakr of Isfahan in1235.The Plate of Conjunctions, a computing instrument used to determine the timeof day at which planetary conjunctions will occur,and for performing linearinterpolation, invented by al-Kashi in the 15th century.A mechanical planetary computer called the Plate of Zones, which couldgraphically solve a number of planetary problems, invented by al-Kashi in the