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signals Sampling

# signals Sampling

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02/12/2014

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MEEN 364ParasuramLecture 4April 2, 20031
EXAMPLES ON SAMPLING AND ALIASING PHENOMENA
Example 1:
Consider the following two analog signals,)50(2cos)( ,)10(2cos)(
21
x x
π π
==
which are sampled at a rate of F
s
= 40 Hz. The corresponding discrete time signals are.25cos)4050(2cos)( ,2cos)4010(2cos)(
21
nnn x nnn x
π π π π
====
However,.2cos)22cos(25cos
nnnn
π π π π
=+=
Hence)()(
21
n xn x
=
. Thus the signals are identical and consequently indistinguishable.If we are given the sampled values generated by
n
2cos
π
, there is some ambiguity as towhether these sampled values correspond to
x
1
(t) or
x
2
(t). Since
x
2
(t) yields exactly thesame values as
x
1
(t) when the two are sampled at F
s
= 40 samples per second, we say thatthe frequency F
2
= 50 Hz is an
alias
of the frequency F
1
= 10 Hz at the sampling rate of 40 samples per second.
Example 2:
Consider the analog signal.100cos3)(
x
a
π
=
a)

Determine the minimum sampling rate required to avoid aliasing. b)

Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate of Fs = 200 Hz, what is the discrete-time signal obtained after sampling?c)

Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate of Fs = 75 Hz, what is the discrete-time signal obtained after sampling?d)

What is the frequency of a sinusoid that yields samples identical to those obtainedin part (c)?

MEEN 364ParasuramLecture 4April 2, 20032a) The frequency of the analog signal can be calculated as.50,1002
11
==
F  F
π π
Hence the minimum sampling rate required to avoid aliasing is F
s
= 100 Hz. b) If the signal is sampled at F
s
= 200 Hz, then the discrete-time signal is.)2cos(3)200100cos(3)(
nnn x
π π
==
c) If the signal is sampled at F
s
= 75 Hz, then the discrete-time signal is.)32cos(3)322cos(3)34cos(3)75100cos(3)(
nnnnn x
π π π π π
====
d) For the sampling rate of F
s
= 75 Hz, we have
f   fF  F
s
75
2
==
The frequency of the sinusoid in part (c) is .31
=
f
Hence.2537575
2
===
f   F
Clearly, the sinusoidal signal
F  y
π π
50cos32cos3)(
2
==
sampled at F
s
= 75 samples per second yields identical samples. Hence F
1
= 50 Hz is analias of F
2
= 25 Hz for the sampling rate F
s
= 75 Hz.

MEEN 364ParasuramLecture 4April 2, 20033
Example 3:
Consider the analog signal.100cos300sin1050cos3)(
x
a
π π π
+=
What is the Nyquist rate for this signal?The frequencies present in the signal above are.50,150,25
321
===
F  F  F
Thus
F
max
= 150 Hz and according to the sampling theorem
Hz  F  F
s
3002
max
=>
.The Nyquist rate is
F
N
= 2
F
max
. Hence
F
N
= 300 Hz.
Discussion
It should be observed that the signal component
π
300sin10, sampled at the Nyquistrate
F
N
= 300 Hz, results in samples
n
π
sin10, which are identically zero. In othewords, we are sampling the analog signal at its zero-crossing points, and hence we missthe signal component completely. This situation would not occur if the sinusoid is offsetin phase by some amount
θ
. In such a case we have )300sin(10
θ π
+
sampled at the Nyquist rate
F
N
= 300 samples per second, which yields the samples.sin10)1( cossin10)sincoscos(sin10)sin(10
θ π θ θ π θ π θ π
n
nnnn
==+=+
Thus if 0
θ
or
π
, the samples of the sinusoid taken at Nyquist rate are not all zero.However, we still cannot obtain the correct amplitude from the samples when the phase
θ
is unknown. A simple remedy that avoids this potentially troublesome situation is tosample the analog signal at a rate higher than the Nyquist rate.