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Published by abhay144
if any body can understand what to do plz mail me at abhay144@gmail.com
if any body can understand what to do plz mail me at abhay144@gmail.com

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Published by: abhay144 on Dec 19, 2007
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Electrical Principles I CourseworAssignment 2: the defibrillator
are designed to restore the normal rhythm of heart activity when it is disturbed byaccident or disease, by passing a large but short-lived electric current through the chest. Althoughthe basic defibrillator circuit has a transient RC behaviour, an inductor may be introduced, givingan RLC behaviour. The inductor allows the delivered pulse to be shaped in ways not possiblewith the simple RC configuration.Your assignment is as follows:(a)Adapt the theory of RLC processes given in your lecture notes to model theoretically the behaviour of the defibrillator. The basic differential equation for the current is unchanged, but theinitial conditions will be different, and this leads to different solutions: Start by stating the correctinitial conditions, then apply them to the general solutions to derive the solutions. The cases R 
4L/C and R² < 4L/C should both be covered.
(Note: you do NOT need to rederive the general  solutions from the DE. Start at the point where the initial conditions for current and voltages areused).
(b)Use SIMetrix to simulate the defibrillator circuit. Choose appropriate values for R, L and C. Note: no switches are needed - by setting the initial state of the capacitor and inductor you canreproduce the initial conditions of part (a). Compare your results for the current with the theory of  part (a) and the sketch graphs in the accompanying notes.
(Hint: suitable values for R and C canbe derived from the notes - L can then be adjusted to give reasonable agreement).
(c)Finish off your report with a general discussion of defibrillators, informed by parts (a) and (b)and by your reading and research (give adequate references to any sources used).
Principle of operation of DC defibrillator with reference to: nature & waveform of the defibrillating pulse; necessity for the use of 'joules' to describe the level requiredfor defibrillation
1. 1.Energy used for cardioversion & defibrillation
a)Electrical output of defibrillators is expressed in terms of energy
Joules (J) or watt-seconds (Ws) describe the power (watts) and the length of time it is applied (sec)c)Thus Energy (Joules) = power (watts) x duration (seconds)d)note:watt = current (amps) x voltage (volts)1 watt = 1 J s¯ 
e)Defibrillators are set according to the amount of energy stored; this depends on both the charge & the potentialPower[W]CurrentfA]g)Power (W) = Energy (J) per second
Capacitance is the measure of the abilityof an object to hold an electrical charge.SI unit is Coulomb (C) Coulombs =Amperes (A) x seconds (s)
ii)J = CV
iii)Stored energy (J) =1/2 X stored energy (C) xPotential (V)iv)EG: potential of 5000 V is applied across two plates of a capacitor, produces a store of electrons of 160mC of chargev)Energy = 1/2 x 160 mC x 5000 V - 400 J
2. 2. Operation
a)Defibrillation energy is temporarily stored in a capacitor  b)The large capacitor is charged to the selected energy and then dischargedthrough the paddles applied to the chestThe energy stored in the capacitor is released as a current pulse (eg, 35 A for 3ms) resulting in a synchronous contraction of the heart after which a refractory period and normal beats may followc)Inductoi)Included in circuit to ensure that the electric pulse has an optimal shape& durationii)During discharge, the inductor absorbs some of the energy so that notall is discharged to the patient
Potential[V] =h)Current(A) = Charge(C) per second

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