Integral Relationsfor a Control Volume
Discuss Newton’s second law (the linear momentum relation) in these three forms:()
d d m m d dt dt
æ öç ÷å
ç ÷è ø
These questions are just to get the students thinking about the basic laws of mechanics. They are valid and equivalent for constant-mass systems, and we can makeuse of all of them in certain fluids problems, e.g. the #1 form for small elements, #2 formfor rocket propulsion, but the #3 form is control-volume related and thus the mostpopular in this chapter.
Consider the angular-momentum relation in the form()
d d dt
ê úê úë û
mean in this relation? Is this relation valid in both solid and fluidmechanics? Is it related to the
-momentum equation (Prob. 3.1)? In what manner?
These questions are just to get the students thinking about angularmomentum versus linear momentum. One might forget that
is the position vector fromthe moment-center O to the elements
where momentum is being summed. Perhaps
is a better notation.
For steady laminar flow through a long tube (see Prob. 1.12), the axial velocitydistribution is given by
), where R is the tube outer radius and C is aconstant. Integrate
(r) to find the total volume flow
through the tube.
The area element for this axisymmetric flow is dA
r dr. From Eq. (3.7),
Q u dA C R r rdr Ans
= = − =