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Martin Heidegger - Originea Operei de Arta

Martin Heidegger - Originea Operei de Arta

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Published by: Julie on Dec 20, 2008
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Martin Heidegger
Originea operei de art\u0103
Traducere \u015fi note
THOMAS KLEININGER
GABRIEL LIICEANU
Studiu introductiv
CONSTANTIN NOICA
d
Medita\u0163ii introductive asupra lui Heidegger

La un an de la stingerea din via\u0163\u0103 a lui Martin Heidegger, petrecut\u0103 la 26 mai 1976, a avut loc \u00een aula Universit\u0103\u0163ii din Freiburg o \u015fedin\u0163\u0103 comemorativ\u0103, \u00een prezen\u0163a celor doi fii ai filozofului \u015fi a unei alese asisten\u0163e, din care nu lipseau c\u00ee\u0163iva c\u0103rturari str\u0103ini de seam\u0103. Vorbitorii au fost: Werner Marx, succesorul lui Heidegger la catedr\u0103, H.-G. Gadamer, cel mai renumit elev al acestuia \u015fi C.F. von Weizs\u00e2cker, marele fizician \u015fi om de cultur\u0103, prieten al filozofului \u2014 a\u015fadar ginditorii germani cei mai autoriza\u0163i in clipa aceea s\u0103 evoce persoana \u015fi opera celui disp\u0103rut. Cuv\u00e2nt\u0103rile lor au fost publicate \u00eentre timp sub titlul: Heidegger. Freibwger Univer-sit\u0103tsvortr\u00e2ge zu seinem Gedenken, Miinchen, 1977.

Ceea ce este uluitor \u00een aceste cuv\u00e2nt\u0103ri \u2014 \u015fi probabil va r\u0103mine a\u015fa ca un document al epocii \u2014 nu e at\u00eet faptul c\u0103 fiecare dintre vorbitori a \u00een\u0163eles s\u0103-\u015fi \u00eenf\u0103\u0163i\u015feze, dup\u0103 o sumar\u0103 prezentare a g\u00eendirii heidegge-riene, rezervele sale fa\u0163\u0103 de ea; uimitoare este lipsa, parc\u0103 deliberat\u0103, a oric\u0103rei perspective istorice, a\u015fadar re\u0163inerea \u00een a g\u0103si lui Heidegger un loc \u00een istoria filozofiei germane \u015fi cu at\u00eet mai mult \u00een istoria g\u00eendirii universale.

Fire\u015fte, f\u0103r\u0103 rezerve va fi greu de comentat o filozofie ca aceasta, care \u015fi-a \u00eeng\u0103duit pe de-o parte s\u0103 \u00eenfrunte toat\u0103 tradi\u0163ia filozofic\u0103 de la Platon \u015fi p\u00een\u0103 ast\u0103zi, de-clarind c\u0103 ea \u201ea uitat" de problema ei fundamental\u0103, iar pe de alt\u0103 parte \u015fi-a \u00eeng\u0103duit s\u0103 declare c\u0103 timpul nostru, cu civiliza\u0163ia \u015fi cultura lui ca expresie a acestei regretabile uit\u0103ri, reprezint\u0103 eine Zeit der Diirftigkeit, o epoc\u0103 a indigen\u0163ei, a pu\u0163in\u0103t\u0103\u0163ii, a mizeriei spirituale.

\u00een schimb, refuzul sau \u00eent\u00eerzierea de a\u00eencerca, m\u0103car, o situare \u00een istoria g\u00eendirii a filozofului care, cel pu\u0163in \u00een Occident, a dominat de la distan\u0163\u0103 tot ce era g\u00eendire original\u0103 \u015fi pe care nu-1 \u00eentrece ca ecou dec\u00eet g\u00eendirea de inspira\u0163ie hegelian\u0103 (spre a r\u0103m\u00eene la istoria g\u00eendirii doar speculative), s-ar putea s\u0103 \u0163in\u0103 de o regretabil\u0103 pruden\u0163\u0103, \u00een lumea german\u0103 de ast\u0103zi, sau de oDurf-tigkeit a ei pur \u015fi simplu.

\u00een cazul lui Hegel, de altfel, s-a manifestat aceea\u015fi re\u0163inere \u015fi caren\u0163\u0103. Hegel \u015fi Heidegger (poate \u015fi Nietzsche \u00eentre ei), oric\u00eet de deosebi\u0163i, par a nu putea fi asimila\u0163i p\u00een\u0103 la cap\u0103t de spiritul german (datorit\u0103 deschiderii lor prea mari, cumva?). De vreo sut\u0103 de ani n-a mai ap\u0103rut nici un hegelian, fie \u015fi de nivel mijlociu, \u00een Germania, \u00een timp ce \u00een Anglia, \u00een Rusia veacului trecut, \u00een Italia \u015fi apoi \u00een Fran\u0163a s-a practicat un bun hegelianism. La fel, timp de 50 de ani de la apari\u0163ia \u00een 1927 a lui Sein und Zeit \u015fi p\u00een\u0103 la moartea filozofului,nu g\u00eenditorii germani i-au f\u0103cut succesul, ci g\u00eenditorii \u015fi studen\u0163ii str\u0103ini, care au \u00een\u0163eles sau intuit c\u0103 acolo, la Freiburg \u00een Breisgau, unde a profesat zeci de ani Heidegger, se \u00een-t\u00eempla ceva deosebit \u00een g\u00eendirea occidental\u0103.*

De altfel, dac\u0103 este vorba de Occident bine\u00een\u0163eles, cum s-ar putea cineva hr\u0103ni cu filozofia practicat\u0103 \u00een celelalte mari culturi de acolo? Cultura anglo-saxon\u0103, cu empirismul ei frust, cu neopozitivismul \u015fi filozofia ei analitic\u0103, nu are \u00eendemnul, poate nici voca\u0163ia ideii, sf\u00eer\u015find la nominalism sau scepticism; \u00een timp ce \u00een cultura francez\u0103 se \u00eent\u00eempl\u0103 ceva surprinz\u0103tor \u00een materie de filozofie: de prin 1930 (dup\u0103 \u00eencetarea modei Bergson) \u015fi p\u00een\u0103 ast\u0103zi, filozofia \u00eenseamn\u0103 \u00een chip re-

* \u00eendr\u0103znim a men\u0163iona, al\u0103turi de studen\u0163ii japonezi de pild\u0103, pe studen\u0163ii rom\u00e2ni sau din Rom\u00e2nia (Walter Biemel), care, prin preg\u0103tirea lor (mai to\u0163i \u015ftiau limba greac\u0103 veche \u015fi c\u00eeteva limbi moderne), ca \u015fi prin vioiciunea lor l-au f\u0103cut pe Heidegger s\u0103 exclame: Die Lateiner! De unul din ace\u015ftia, aflat \u00een \u0163ar\u0103 \u015fi f\u00eelozof\u00eend f\u0103r\u0103 a scrie - conform unui model heideggerian absolut \u2014 profesorul \u00eentreba cu interes \u00een ultimii s\u0103i ani de via\u0163\u0103.

cunoscut comentarea a cinci mari germant Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, Freud \u015fi Heidegger! De la Voltaire \u00eencoace, cu abdicarea \u00een fa\u0163a g\u00eendirii politico-sociale engleze, nu s-a mai \u00eenregistrat o asemenea abdicare a spiritului francez.

\u00een fapt, tocmai g\u00eendirea francez\u0103, prin Sartre \u015fi existen\u0163ialism, a sf\u00eer\u015fit prin a contribui \u00een chip hot\u0103ritor la extraordinarul r\u0103sunet al lui Heidegger \u00een deceniile din urm\u0103. Pu\u0163ini filozofi au avut \u00eenc\u0103 din timpul vie\u0163ii lor un asemenea ecou. Va dura ecoul? Prin exegeza occidental\u0103 \u2014 \u015fi nu cea german\u0103! \u2014, prin filtrul critic al g\u00eendirii r\u0103s\u0103ritene, care a \u015ftiut s\u0103 accepte din perspectiva ei integratoare \u00eendrept\u0103\u0163irea unora din tezele existen\u0163ialismului german \u015fi francez, ca \u015fi prin medita\u0163ie proprie, vom \u00eencerca s\u0103 ar\u0103t\u0103m ce anume poate fi re\u0163inut drept epocal la Heidegger.

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