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complete fundamental of computer

complete fundamental of computer

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Published by aashishanshu
In this book there are name of countries with their capital & currency
In this book there are name of countries with their capital & currency

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: aashishanshu on Dec 20, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/10/2012

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COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS
Data: -Any alphabetic, numeric and symbol may be called data.File: -Collection of data is called file.Dir: -Collection of files is called directory.Information: -Processed form of data is called information.Command: -Set of instruction is called command.Program: -Group of command is called program.Software: -It means a set of programs which supply instructions to a computer.Hardware: -Physical parts or components of computer system are called hardware.Key Board: -Key Board is an input device of the computer. Program and data areentered by the Key Board. A key board is like a type writer.Mouse: -Mouse is a hand operated input device used to move the pointer ocursor on the screen or to select options.Scanner: -Scanner is an input device. It is just like photocopy machine. It scansto image or text and copy the scanned image or text in the computer.Monitor: -Monitor is an important out put device of the computer. It is also calledVDU. It is used to display data information on the screen.Printer: -A printer is an output device which gives the result in printed form.Speaker: -Speaker is an output device. It is just like the mouth of the computer. Itgives the result in the form of sound when we can hear.Digital Cameras: -Digital Cameras takes pictures, which get stored in digital format in amemory device as floppy disk.Microphone: -Today microphone is an integral part of most computer systems. Itconverts spoken words in digital format.
 
Computer: -It is an electronic device that accepts the data, process the data andgive the result in the required form.Analog Computer: -The analog computer accepts processes and generates continuous data.Digital Computer: -The digital computer accepts processes and generates discrete data.Hybrid computer: -Hybrid computer is complex of both computers.CPU: -All the actions performed by the computer system are initiated, performed and controlled by the CPU. It is the brain of the computer.Operating System: -An operating system is a set of programs used to manage theoperations of the computer system.Compilers: -Compilers translates a source program that is written in a high levellanguage in to machine language called object program.Interpreters: -It translates each source program statement in to a sequence omachine instructions and then executes these machine instructions before translating the next source language statement.Assembler: -An assembler is a program used to convert the program written inassembly language in to machine language.1
 
DEFINITION OF COMPUTER 
“Computer is an electronic device that accept the data, process the data and gives the result inthe required form”.“Computer is an electronic device which can receive inputs (data) as raw material and process it according to the program instruction to produce the output in a useful form”.“The word” Computer” comes from the word “compute” which means to calculate. So acomputer is normally considered to be a calculating device that can perform arithmetic andlogical operation at an enormous speed but accurately”.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTERS
Speed
: - Computer is a very fast device that can process of instructions within seconds for which human being may take several days or month. Its speed is measured in terms of Milliseconds (1/10
3
of a second), Microseconds (1/10
6
of a second), Nanoseconds (1/10
9
of asecond) and Picoseconds (1/10
12
of a second).
Accuracy
: - Computer maintains high degree of accuracy, errors can occur in computerizedsystem also but most of them occur due to human mistakes.
Storage
: - Computer can store very large amount of information in the secondary storagedevices. This information stays with the computer for further use.
Consistency
: - A computer can work for hours without lack of concentration, tiredness or emotional feelings.
Reliability
:-Computers are highly reliable, very accurate and do not make mistakes inarithmetic calculations.
Versatility
: - Computer can perform various types of jobs at the same time.
Diligence
: -Computer is a very constant, earnest and Carefulness.
Computer Vs Human Being
ComputerElement
ComputerHuman Being
InputInput to the system in machine-readable form.Input to the system is through ears,eyes, mouth or nose.MainstorageHold input data and instructiontemporarily before it is processed.Data and instructions are stored in brain and can be recalled whenever needed.SecondarystorageIt is as extension to main storageand the contents storage in itare retained permanently.Use pocket-diaries, notebooks etc.to store contents for permanentuse.Arithmetic& LogicalUnitIt performs arithmetic andlogical calculations and makescomparisons.Brain performs comparisons andcalculations in order to makelogical judgments.ControlUnitIt coordinates and controls theoperations of a computer system.Brain controls mental actions onthe basis of calculations andcomparisons.OutputOutput the results via VDU, printer, plotter etc.Output is either in writing or aspeech using mouth.2
 
HISTORY OF COMPUTER 
ABACUS:-
First of all Chinese introduced the Abacus, It is a manual calculating device and is still usedas a calculator in chine.
PASCAL’S CALCULATOR 
:-Blasé Pascal, a French Mathematician invented an adding machine around 1641. It wascapable of performing addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
BABBAGE’S Difference and Analytical Engine
:-
“Charles Babbage”
(1792-1871), a 19th century professor at Cambridge University. He isknown as the father of the modern digital computer.The difference engine made by him in 1822 used the idea of constant difference.Babbage worked on the difference Engine and designed a larger and improved calculatingmachine in 1834 known as the analytical engine.
The Mark I Computer
:-In 1944 Harvard University Professor, Howard G. Aiken, in collaboration with IBM(International Business Machine) built the Harvard Mark I Computer.It was capable of performing arithmetic and logical operations.The machine was extremely reliable but very bulky being 50 feet long and 8 feet wide.
GENERATION OF COMPUTERS
First Generation Computer (1946-1959)
The main components in use were the vacuum tubes (likes those in the old radios, whichwarmed up after a minute or show, and glowed red).The vacuum tubes were also called asvalves. The first computer used 18000 vacuum tubes weighted 30 tons and occupied on area(9 meter X 15 meter) of a big hall. Vacuum tubes took ages to warm up and consumedmassive amounts of electricity.Some of the computers of this generation are ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator andCalculator), UNIVAC-1 (Universal Automatic Computer) and IBM 650.
Main Features:
Vacuum Tubes Technology.
Speed in Milliseconds.
Machine and assembly language were used for programming.
Punched card for input.
Magnetic tape and magnetic drum for external storage.
It is used for scientific computation, pay roll processing and business applications.
Drawbacks:
Very large size.
Consumed lot of power.
Poor reliability.
Second Generation Computer (1959-1965)
3

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