Turbo Codes1. Concatenated Coding System
RSEncoder AlgebraicDecoder Short RandomCodeChannelMaximumLikekihoodDecoder Layer 2Layer 1
Concatenated coding has the multilevel codingstructure, illustrated in Fig.12.1A relatively shot random ‘’inner code’’ can beused with MLD to achieve a modest error probability, say a bit-error rate of P
, at acode-rate which is near channel capacity.Then a long high-rate algebraic Reed-Solomon‘’outer code’’ can be used along with a powerfulalgebraic error-correction algorithm to drivedown the error probability to a level as low asdesired with only a small code-rate loss.