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Turbo Codes

Turbo Codes

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Published by Shathis Kumar

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Published by: Shathis Kumar on May 04, 2012
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05/04/2012

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 1
Chapter 11
Turbo Codes1. Concatenated Coding System
RSEncoder AlgebraicDecoder Short RandomCodeChannelMaximumLikekihoodDecoder Layer 2Layer 1
 
Fig. 12.1
!
Concatenated coding has the multilevel codingstructure, illustrated in Fig.12.1A relatively shot random ‘’inner code’’ can beused with MLD to achieve a modest error  probability, say a bit-error rate of P
 b
=10
-2
, at acode-rate which is near channel capacity.Then a long high-rate algebraic Reed-Solomon‘’outer code’’ can be used along with a powerfulalgebraic error-correction algorithm to drivedown the error probability to a level as low asdesired with only a small code-rate loss.
 
 2
!
For convolutional codes with Viterbi decoding,soft decisions are incorporated easily into theViterbi decoding algorithms in a very natureway, providing an increase in coding gain of over 2.0 dB with respect to the comparablehard-decision decoder over AWGN channel.However, the convolutional codes cannot beimplemented easily at high coding rates. Theyalso have an unfortunate tendency to generate burst errors at the decoder output as the noiselevel at the input is increased.
!
In the concatenated coding system, theconvolutional code (with soft-decision Viterbidecoding) is used to ‘’clean up’’ the channel for Reed-Solomon code, which in turn corrects the burst errors emerging from the Viterbi decoder.
 
 3
!
By the proper choice of codes the probability of error can be made to decrease exponentiallywith overall code length at all rates less thancapacity.
!
Generally, the ‘’outer’’ code is more specializedin preventing errors generated by the ‘’inner’’code when it makes a mistake.The ‘’innercode can also be a binary block code other than a binary convolutional code. For a hard-limited channel, trellis codes often areselected as ‘’inner’’ codes.

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