All without exception have sinned. “All have sinned and fall short of theglory of God” (3:23)
Judgment comes for failing to do good works.
He will render to each one according to his works:
but for thosewho are self-seeking and do not obey the truth, but obeyunrighteousness, there will be wrath and fury.
There will betribulation and distress for every human being who does evil, the
Jew first and also the Greek” (Rom 2:6, 8
Those who have the law will be judged for failing to do the law (2:12-13),not for boundary marker violations or excluding Gentiles
Jews criticized for stealing, committing adultery, and robbing temples(not boundary markers): Rom 2:21-23
Makes most sense to understand Rom 3:19-20 to refer to what the law as a
whole commands: “Now we know that whatever the law says it speaks to
those who are under the law, so that every mouth may be stopped, andthe whole world may be held accountable to God. For by works of thelaw no human being will be justified in his sight, since through the law
comes knowledge of sin.”
Romans 4:6-8 refers to works in general (not boundary markers
David kept the
boundary markers!) “Just as David also speaks of the blessing of the one to
whom God counts righteousness apart from works:
"Blessed are those whoselawless deeds are forgiven, and whose sins are covered;
blessed is the man
against whom the Lord will not count his sin.”
Romans 9:30-10:8 does not breathe a word about boundary markers.
Israel who pursued a law that would lead to righteousness did notsucceed in reaching that law.
Why? Because they did not pursue it byfaith, but as if it were based on works. They have stumbled over thestumbling stone
For I bear them witness that they have a zeal for God, but notaccording to knowledge.
For, being ignorant of the righteousness ofGod, and seeking to establish their own, they did not submit to God'srighteousness.
For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness toeveryone who believes.
For Moses writes about the righteousness that is based on the law, that the person who does the commandments shall live by them.
But the righteousness based on faith says . . .
Gal 3:10 refer
s to the whole law: “For all who rely on works of the law are under a curse;
for it is written, "Cursed be everyone who does not abide by all things written in theBook of the Law, and do them."
Paul moves easily from works of law to law in Galatians
does not come via the law but by God’s grace (2:21)
Believers have died to the law (2:19).
The emphasis is clearly on keeping the whole law (cf. 5:3).
I testify again to
every man who accepts circumcision that he is obligated to keep the whole law.”