UNIT THREE: GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY(Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)1
Chapter Ten (DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis)Chapter Ten (DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis)Chapter Ten (DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis)Chapter Ten (DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis)
SECTIONSECTIONSECTIONSECTION ONE: DISCOVERY OF DNAONE: DISCOVERY OF DNAONE: DISCOVERY OF DNAONE: DISCOVERY OF DNAGRIFFITH’S EXPERIMENTSIn 1928, Frederick Griffith was studying a bacterium called
. He was trying to develop a vaccine against a disease-causing or vvvvirulentirulentirulentirulentstrain of the bacterium.Each virulent bacterium is surrounded by a capsule made of polysaccharidesthat protects it from the body’s defense systems. In a virulent strain, the bacteriagrows in ssssmooth-edged colonies and are called the
strain. A second strain growsinto rrrrough colonies and lacks a capsule, so it does not cause pneumonia.He used the two strains of bacteria in a series of four experiments. Theyprovide information about the hereditary material.In Experiments 1 and 2, he injected the mice either live R or live S cells intothe mice. He discovered that only S cells killed the mice. In his third experiment, heinjected the mice with heat-killed S cells, and the mice lived. The first threeexperiments were controlled.His fourth experiment was his critical experiment. He injected the mice withlive R cells and heat-killed S cells. The mice died. From these four experiments, heconcluded that the heat-killed virulent bacterial cells release a hereditary factorthat transfers the disease-causing ability to the live harmless cells. This type of transformation of genetic material from one cell to another cell or from one organismto another organism is called transformationtransformationtransformationtransformation.