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Mechanics of Materials

Mechanics of Materials

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Published by Nikhil Vanam
must read it if u belong to mechanical stream
must read it if u belong to mechanical stream

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Nikhil Vanam on May 05, 2012
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08/05/2013

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Draft
DRAFT
Lecture Notes
Introduction to
MECHANICS of MATERIALS
Fundamentals of Inelastic Analysis
 
c
VICTOR E. SAOUMA
Dept. of Civil Environmental and Architectural EngineeringUniversity of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0428
www.jntuworld.com
www.jntuworld.com
 
Draft
iii
PREFACE
One of the most fundamental question that an Engineer has to ask him/herself is what is how doesit deform, and when does it break. Ultimately, it its the answer to those two questions which wouldprovide us with not only a proper safety assesment of a structure, but also how to properly design it.Ironically, botht he ACI and the AISC codes are based on limit state design, yet practically all designanalyses are linear and elastic. On the other hand, the Engineer is often confronted with the task of determining the ultimate load carying capacity of a structure or to assess its progressive degradation (inthe ontect of a forensic study, or the rehabilitation, or life extension of an existing structure). In thoseparticular situations, the Engineer should be capable of going beyond the simple linear elastic analysisinvestigation.Whereas the Finite Element Method has proved to be a very powerful investigative tool, its proper(and correct) usage in the context of non-linear analysis requires a solid and thorough understanding of the fundamentals of Mechanics. Unfortunately, this is often forgotten as students rush into ever moreadvanced FEM classes without a proper solid background in Mechanics.In the humble opinion of the author, this understanding is best achieved in two stages. First, thestudent should be exposed to the basic principles of Continuum Mechanics. Detailed coverage of (3D)Stress, Strain, General Principles, and Constitutive Relations is essential. In here we shall go from thegeneral to the specific.Then material models should be studied. Plasticity will provide a framework from where to determinethe ultimate strength, Fracture Mechanics a framework to check both strength and stability of flawedstructures, and finally Damage Mechanics will provide a framework to assess stiffness degradation underincreased load.The course was originally offered to second year undergraduate Materials Science students at theSwiss Institute of Technology during the author’s sabbatical leave in French. The notes were developedwith the following objectives in mind. First they must be complete and rigorous. At any time, a studentshould be able to trace back the development of an equation. Furthermore, by going through all thederivations, the student would understand the limitations and assumptions behind every model. Finally,the rigor adopted in the coverage of the subject should serve as an example to the students of therigor expected from them in solving other scientific or engineering problems. This last aspect is oftenforgotten.The notes are broken down into a very hierarchical format. Each concept is broken down into a smallsection (a byte). This should not only facilitate comprehension, but also dialogue among the studentsor with the instructor.Whenever necessary, Mathematical preliminaries are introduced to make sure that the student isequipped with the appropriate tools. Illustrative problems are introduced whenever possible, and lastbut not least problem set using
Mathematica 
is given in the Appendix.The author has no illusion as to the completeness or exactness of all these set of notes. They wereentirely developed during a single academic year, and hence could greatly benefit from a thorough review.As such, corrections, criticisms and comments are welcome.
Victor E. SaoumaBoulder, January 2002Victor Saouma Mechanics of Materials II
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Draft
Contents
I CONTINUUM MECHANICS 1
1 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES; Part I Vectors and Tensors 1
1.1 Indicial Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.2.1 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2.2 Coordinate Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.2.2.1
General Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.2.2.1.1
Contravariant Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.2.2.1.2 Covariant Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.2.2.2 Cartesian Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.3 Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.3.1 Denition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.3.2 Tensor Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.3.3 Rotation of Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.3.4 Principal Values and Directions of Symmetric Second Order Tensors . . . . . . . . 131.3.5
Powers of Second Order Tensors; Hamilton-Cayley Equations . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2 KINETICS 1
2.1 Force, Traction and Stress Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Traction on an Arbitrary Plane; Cauchy’s Stress Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3E 2-1 Stress Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.3 Principal Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.3.1 Invariants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.3.2 Spherical and Deviatoric Stress Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.4 Stress Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7E 2-2 Principal Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8E 2-3 Stress Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82.5
Simplied Theories; Stress Resultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.5.1 Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.5.2 Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES; Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION 1
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Derivative WRT to a Scalar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1E 3-1 Tangent to a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33.3 Divergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43.3.1 Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4E 3-2 Divergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63.3.2 Second-Order Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63.4 Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63.4.1 Scalar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6E 3-3 Gradient of a Scalar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
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