consider these under the label of racism and prefers to describe this as a different type of phenomenon,perhaps because these continental race difficulties were between peoples of more similar geneticcharacteristics. Specifically, the long-standing contempt of one another by the Christians, Jews, and
Muslims seems glossed in terms of “tribal nationalisms” instead of the much more pervasive racial
constructions allowing them to consider each other heathen savages despite religious conversions,education, or geographical location. I agree that the strictly contrasted black/white racism prevalent inthe High Imperialist politics of African exploits can correctly be seen as an extension and mutation of nationalistic ideologies. I would argue for the reverse also
that nationalism during the rise of nationstates can also be seen in part as an extension and mutation of pre-existing racist ideologies.In her chapter on Continental Imperialism, Arendt makes a distinction between thepsychological elements of chauvinism and tribalism. She describes the chauvinistic impulse as pastoriented,
“extroverted, concerned with visible spiritual and material achievements of the nation” and
tribalism as mythical future oriented,
“introverted, concentrated on the individual’s own soul which isconsidered as the embodiment of general national qualities.”
Again, I think she puts the cart before thehorse in describing tribalism as a phenomenon of the nation, rather than vice versa, but she very aptlydescribes tribalism:
Politically speaking, tribal nationalism always insists that its own people is surrounded by “aworld of enemies,” “one against all,” that a fundamental differenc
e exists between this peopleand all others. It claims its people to be unique, individual, incompatible with all others, anddenies theoretically the very possibility of a common mankind long before it is used to destroythe humanity of man.
The ways in
which each nation’s racism expressed itself
during the High Imperialism era can be analyzed
between these two facets that she offers. From Baycroft’s article
, we could plot, (at least in
Ibid. p. 107.
Timothy Baycroft. Nationalism in Europe 1789-1945. (Cambridge Univ. Press: ?, 1998) p. 61-70.