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Published by: tiktiktak on Dec 21, 2007
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Resumo do livro
FORTRAN 90 PROGRAMMINGT. M. R. Ellis, Ivor R. Philips, Thomas M. LaheyAddison-Wesley: 1994
F. J. Romeiras / 3.NOV.2003
Chapter 1. Introduction 1Chapter 2. First steps in Fortran 90 programming 3Chapter 3. Essential data handling 9Chapter 4. Basic building blocks 19Chapter 5. Controlling the ow of your program 31Chapter 6. Repeating parts of your program 39Chapter 7. An introduction to arrays 47Chapter 8. More control over input and output 55Chapter 9. Using les to preserve data 63Chapter 10. An introduction to numerical methodsin Fortran 90 programs 70Chapter 13. Array processing and matrix manipulation 77
Computers are today used to solve an almost unimaginable range of problems, and yettheir basic structure has hardly changed in 40 years. They have become faster and morepowerful, as well as smaller and cheaper, but the key to this change in the role thatthey play is due almost entirely to the developments in the programming languages whichcontrol their every action.Fortran 90 is the latest version of the world’s oldest high-level programming lan-guage, and is designed to provide better facilities for the solution of scientific and techno-logical problems and to provide a firm base for further developments to meet the needsof the last years of the 20th century and of the early 21st.This chapter explains the background to both Fortran 90 and its predecessor, FOR-TRAN 77, and emphasizes the importance of the new language for the future develop-ment of scientific, technological and numerical computation. It also establishes certainfundamental concepts, common to all computers, which will provide the basis for furtherdiscussion in later chapters.
Programming languages
are used to define a problem and to specify the methodof its solution in terms that can be understood by a computer system.
high-level language
enables a programmer to write a program without needingto know much about the details of the computer itself.
Hundreds of programming languages have been developed over the last fifty years.Many of these are little used, but there are a small number which are very widelyused throughout the world and have been standardized (either through formal in-ternational processes or as a result of 
de facto
widespread acceptance) to encouragetheir continuing use. Most of these major languages are particulary suited to aparticular class of problems, although this class is often very wide.
Two languages stand head and shoulders above the others in terms of their to-tal usage. These languages are COBOL (first released in 1960) and Fortran (firstreleased in 1957). COBOL is used for business data processing and it has beenestimated that over 70% of all programming carried out in 1990 used COBOL! For-tran programs probably constitute around 60% of the remainder, with all the otherlanguages trailing far behind.
Fortran was originally designed with scientific and engineering users in mind, andduring its first 30 years it has completely dominated this area of programming.
Fortran has also been the dominant computer language for engineering and scientificapplications in academic circles and has been widely used in other, less obviousareas, such as musicology, for example. One of the most widely used programs inboth British and American Universities is SPSS (Statistical Package for the SocialSciences) which enables social scientists to analyse survey or other research data.Indeed, because of the extremely widespread use of Fortran in higher education andindustry, many standard
have been written in Fortran in order to enable

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