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ContinuumMechanicsRevE

ContinuumMechanicsRevE

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03/14/2014

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1
Continuum Mechanics

The magnitude of the vector
a
is written
a
.
Scalar or dot product of two vectors
a
b
=
a b
cos
where
is the angle between
a
and
b
. It followsfrom this definition that
a
b
=
b
a
and
a
+
b
( )
c
=
a
c
+
b
c
.
Tensor product of two vectors
ab
( )
c
=
a b
c
( )
and
c
ab
( )
=
c
a
( )
b
. Sometimes written
a
!
b
( )
c
=
a b
c
( )
and
c
a
!
b
( )
=
c
a
( )
b
. It follows from thisdefinition that
ab
!
ba
unless
a
and
b
are parallel. However
a
+
b
( )
c
=
ac
+
bc
and
a b
+
c
( )
=
ab
+
ac
.
Vector or cross product of two vectors
c
=
a
!
b
=
b
"
a
in which
!
is the permutation pseudotensor (see below).
c
is perpendicular to both
a
and
b
and has magnitude equalto
ab
sin
where
is the angle from
a
to
b
looking along
c
. Itfollows from this definition that
a
!
b
=
"
b
!
a
and
a
+
b
( )
!
c
=
a
!
c
+
b
!
c
.
Area as a vector
The area of each face of the tetrahedron is represented as an
outwards pointing
vector perpendicular to the face and of

2magnitude equal to the area of the face. Note that in looking alongthe area vector
12
v
!
u
we go clockwise from
v
to
u
.The sum of the four areas, treating them as vectors is
12
v
!
u
+
12
u
!
w
+
12
w
!
v
+
12
u
"
w
( )
!
v
"
w
( )
=
12
v
!
u
+
12
u
!
w
+
12
w
!
v
+
12
u
!
v
"
12
u
!
w
"
12
w
!
v
+
12
w
!
w
=
0
since
u
!
v
=
"
v
!
u
and
w
!
w
=
0
.This result can be extended to any closed polyhedron by addingtetrahedra – the vectors of the joing faces just cancel out. If we havean infinitely large number of infinitely small tetrahedra, we have avolume bounded by a smooth surface:
A
!
=
0
in which the vector
A
is an element of surface area and
!
is theentire surface enclosing the volume
.
General curvilinear coordinates

3
Basic relationships
r
=
Xx
1
,
x
2
,
x
3
( )
i
+
Yx
1
,
x
2
,
x
3
( )
j
+
Zx
1
,
x
2
,
x
3
( )
g
1
=
r
,1
=
r
x
1
=
X
x
1
i
+
x
1
j
+
Z
x
1
g
2
=
r
,2
=
r
x
2
=
X
x
2
i
+
x
2
j
+
Z
x
2
g
3
=
r
,3
=
r
x
3
=
X
x
3
i
+
x
3
j
+
Z
x
3

g
i
g
j
=
j i
=
1 if
i
=
=
0 if
i
!
"#\$%\$
in which
j i
is the Kronecker delta.
g
i
g
j
=
g
ij
and
g
i
g
j
=
g
ij
.
g
i
are the covariant base vectors.
g
i
are the contravariant base vectors.The curvilinear coordinates,
x
i
always have superscripts.The unit tensor,
I
=
g
i
g
i
, and
a
=
a
I
=
I
a
for any vector,
a
.An element of displacement,
r
=
x
i
g
i
and
s
=
r
g
ij
x
i
x
j
.Hence
g
ij
are known as the components of the metric tensor.
g
ik
g
jk
=
j i

ij
=
ji
=
g
g
i
,
=
"
g
,
g
i

g
=
123
=
231
=
312
=
"
321
=
"
213
=
"
132
and
ijk
=
0
unless
i
!
!
!
i
.
1
g
=
123
=
231
=
312
=
"
321
=
"
213
=
"
132
and
ijk
=
0
unless
i
!
!
!
i
.
g
=
g
11
g
22
g
33
+
g
12
g
23
g
31
+
g
13
g
21
g
32
!
g
13
g
22
g
31
!
g
11
g
23
g
32
!
g
12
g
21
g
33

g
i
!
g
j
=
ijk
g
and
g
i
!
g
j
=
ijk
g
.
v
=
v
i
g
i
=
v
i
g
i
where
v
i
=
g
ij
v
j
and
v
i
=
g
ij
v
j
. The summation
i
=
13
!
isimplied.
v
i
are the covariant components of
v
.