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Table Of Contents

Interdependence of Circulatory and Organ Function
THE REGULATION OF CARDIAC AND VASCULAR FUNCTION
THE CONTENT OF THE FOLLOWING CHAPTERS
CELL MEMBRANE POTENTIALS
Resting Membrane Potentials
Maintenance of Ionic Gradients
Ion Channels
Action Potentials
Abnormal Action Potentials
CONDUCTION OF ACTION POTENTIALS WITHIN THE HEART
Electrical Conduction within the Heart
Regulation of Conduction Velocity
Abnormal Conduction
THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG)
ECG Tracing
Volume Conductor Principles and ECG Rules of Interpretation
ECG Leads: Placement of Recording Electrodes
ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING CARDIAC ISCHEMIA
CARDIAC CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Myocytes and Sarcomeres
Excitation–Contraction Coupling
Regulation of Contraction (Inotropy)
Regulation of Relaxation (Lusitropy)
Cardiac Myocyte Metabolism
VASCULAR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Vascular Endothelial Cells
CARDIAC ANATOMY
THE CARDIAC CYCLE
Cardiac Cycle Diagram
Summary of Intracardiac Pressures
Ventricular Pressure-Volume Relationship
Altered Pressure and Volume Changes during the Cardiac Cycle
REGULATION OF CARDIAC OUTPUT
Influence of Heart Rate on Cardiac Output
Regulation of Stroke Volume
MYOCARDIAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION
How Myocardial Oxygen Consumption is Determined
Factors Influencing Myocardial Oxygen Consumption
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
INTRODUCTION
ANATOMY AND FUNCTION
Vascular Network
Distribution of Pressures and Volumes
ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE
Aortic Pulse Pressure
Mean Arterial Pressure
Hemodynamics (Pressure, Flow, and Resistance)
REGULATION OF SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE
Calculation of Systemic Vascular Resistance
Vascular Tone
VENOUS BLOOD PRESSURE
Venous Blood Volume and Compliance
Mechanical Factors Affecting Central Venous Pressure and Venous Return
VENOUS RETURN AND CARDIAC OUTPUT
The Balance between Venous Return and Cardiac Output
Systemic Vascular Function Curves
Cardiac Function Curves
Interactions between Cardiac and Systemic Vascular Function Curves
SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT CONCEPTS
Review Questions
SUGGESTED READINGS
AUTONOMIC NEURAL CONTROL
Autonomic Innervation of the Heart and Vasculature
Baroreceptor Feedback Regulation of Arterial Pressure
Chemoreceptors
Other Autonomic Reflexes Affecting the Heart and Circulation
HUMORAL CONTROL
Circulating Catecholamines
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
Vasopressin (Antidiuretic Hormone)
DISTRIBUTION OF CARDIAC OUTPUT
LOCAL REGULATION OF BLOOD FLOW
Tissue Factors
Endothelial Factors
Smooth Muscle (Myogenic) Mechanisms
Extravascular Compression
Autoregulation of Blood Flow
Reactive and Active Hyperemia
SPECIAL CIRCULATIONS
Coronary Circulation
Cerebral Circulation
Skeletal Muscle Circulation
Cutaneous Circulation
Splanchnic Circulation
Renal Circulation
Pulmonary Circulation
Summary of Special Circulations
MECHANISMS OF EXCHANGE
EXCHANGE OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE
TRANSCAPILLARY FLUID EXCHANGE
Physical Mechanisms Governing Fluid Exchange
Capillary Exchange Model
EDEMA FORMATION
CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO EXERCISE
Factors Influencing Cardiovascular Response to Exercise
MATERNAL CHANGES IN CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION DURING PREGNANCY
HYPOTENSION
Causes of Hypotension
Compensatory Mechanisms during Hypotension
Physiologic Basis for Therapeutic Intervention
HYPERTENSION
Essential (Primary) Hypertension
Secondary Hypertension
HEART FAILURE
Causes of Heart Failure
Systolic versus Diastolic Dysfunction
Systemic Compensatory Mechanisms in Heart Failure
Exercise Limitations Imposed by Heart Failure
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Klabunde, Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts

Klabunde, Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts

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Published by Denise Arnold

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Published by: Denise Arnold on May 08, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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