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High Temperature Leak Characteristics of PCV Hatch Flange Gasket Pages From C142449-02K

High Temperature Leak Characteristics of PCV Hatch Flange Gasket Pages From C142449-02K

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Lee,
Richard
.
From:
Sent:
To:
Subject:Attachments:
Powers,
Dana
Wednesday,
April
06,
2011
8:52
AM
Lee, RichardHead
Seal
Leakage
PCV
Tests
Japanese
(2).pdf
Richard,
Attached
is
some
information
on
the head
seal
of
Japanese
reactors.
I
will
have
to
get
back
to
my
office
to
find
more.
Radiation
causes
crosslinking
thatmakesthe
polymer
stiff.
Note
failure
(leakage)
occurs
faster
in
steam
than
in
nitrogen.
Dana
I
1
(~30
 
-I
ýb
375
Nuclear
Engineering
and
Design
145
(1993)
375-386
North-Holland
calculations
for
REG/CR-4624,
;olumbus,
Ohio
High-temperatureleak-characteristics
of PCV
hatch
flange
gasket
Katsumi
Hirao
a,
Toshiyuki
Zama
a,
Masashi
Goto
b,
Yoshihiro Naruse
b,
Koichi
Saito
c,
Takuro
Suzuki
d
and Hiroyuki Sugino
C
I
Tokyo
Electric Power
Company,
Tokyo,
Japan
b
Toshiba
Corporation,
Yokohama,
Japan
c
Hitachi
Ltd,
Hitachi,Japan
d
Hitachi
Engineering
Co.,
Ltd.,
Hitachi,Japan
I
shikawajima-Harima
Heauy
Industries
Co.,
Ltd,
Yokohama,
Japan
Received
9
July
1993
Small-model tests were
performed
to
examine
the
integrity of
the containment
flange gasket
in
a
severe
accident.
During
a
severeaccident,
containment
structures
suffer
slow
pressurization
at
relatively high
temperatures.
A
realistic
understand-
ing
of
containment performance
in
such
conditions
is
a
major concern
in
developing
an
accident
management
strategy.
This
paper describes
the
results of
experiments
on
the
sealing capability of flange gaskets
at
high
pressures and
high
temperatures.
Silicone-rubbergaskets,
which
are
used as
the sealing material
in
BWR
plant
primary
containment
vessels(PCV)
in
Japan,
wereexamined
in
small-model tests.
The
gaskets
showsufficient
sealing
capability
up to
225'C
at
20
kgf/cm
2
.
When applying
the
leakage characteristics specified
in
this
paper
to
codes
for severe accidents,
the
results
should
be
examined carefully basedon realistic
heattransfer
phenomena.
1.
Introduction
The
PCV
is
an
important
structure
preventing
re-
lease
of
radioactive
materials
from
a
nuclear
power
plant
into
the
environment.
We
decided to
study
the
integrity
of
PCV
during
severeaccidents
after
the
accidents
at
TMI-2
and
Chernobyl.
Scale
models
(1/8
and
1/32)
of
a
steel
PCV
have
been
pressurized
by air
to
rupture;
a
1/6 scale
model
of
a
concrete
PCV
has
also
been
tested
[1,2,3,4].
Leak
tests of
manytypes
of
gaskets
at
flanges
and
of
full-scale
personnel
air
lockshave
been
performed
successfully
[5,6,7,8].
There
are
many
reports
fromsuchtests.We formed
a
study
group
to
investigate
the
high-
temperature
leak
characteristics
of
gaskets
in
nuclearpower
plantsand to establish
the
integrity
of
the
PCV.
This
program
was
divided
into
three
phases.
Phase
1
Was
composed
of
a
survey
of literature
and
test
results.
In
phase
2,
we
conducted component tests and
small-
Workshop
on
Containment
Integrity
[9].
The
results
of
phase
3
were
reported
in
SMiRT
11
[10].
In
the
near
future,these reports
will
contribute
to
assessment
of
PCV integrity
for
licensing
purposes.This
report
presents
the
details of phase
2
in which
the
followingtwo
tests were conducted
at
high
temper-atures:
(1)
Component
test
(2)
Small-model
test.
Item (1)
was
used
to
clarify
the
gasket
material
properties
at
high
temperatures,
and
Rein
(2)
evaluatedthe
high-temperature
leak
characteristicsandobtained
the minimum
temperature
and pressure at
which theflange
gasket
started
leaking.
2.
Tests
 
t-2
Fig.
1
Dimensions
of
test
specimen
for
tensile
test.
and
irradiation.
In
the
small-model
test, the pressuriz-
ing
medium,
temperature,
tightness, pre-irradiation
with
y-rays and configuration
of
the
seal
were
chosen
as
testparameters.
E
(3
at
Ctt. CflGtC
I-.
50
A--&
Irradiated~inteam
0-datdn
ta
U
IUU
2UU
Temperature
(r-)
2.1.
Component
test
Fig.,
2.
Effect
of temperature to
tensile
strength.
The testpieces were made
of
silicone
rubber
withthe
same specifications
as
gaskets used
in
actualplants.
We
prepared
two
types of specimen:
a
normal and
an
irradiatedone
(80
Mrad).
This condition
is
referred
to
as
theelectrical
penetration
specification.
We pre-pared
three sets of
specimensfor each test
case.
2.1.1.
Tensile test
We tested the tensilestrength
of
the specimens
at
high
temperaturesandobtained theload-deformation
curve
for silicone rubber.
(1)
Test
procedures
Figure
1
shows
the
specimen configuration.
The
test
temperatureswere room
temperature,
150
0
C,
200'C,
and
250'C.
Each
test
specimen
was
held
for
1
hour
at
thetest temperature. Specimens werethen
pulled
from
each
side
and the elongation
was
measured.
We
testedeach specimen
type
three
timesunderthe same
condi-
tions.
(2)
Results
The
results areshown
in
Figs.
2
and
3.
Thetensilestrength
of
the
non-irradiated
specimenat
150"C
is
halfthatat room
temperature
(Fig.
2).
It
becomesconstant
from
150TC
to
200TC
and then decreases
above
200'C.
In
contrast,
thetensile strength
of the
irradi-
atedspecimens
is
one-quarter
that
of
the non-irradia-ted specimens
at
room
temperature,
and
then
slowly
decreases
up
to 250'C.
As
shown
in
Fig.
3,
the elonga-
tion
of the
non-irradiated
specimen
is
similar
to
its
tensile strength.. However,the elongation
of the
irradi-
atedspecimen
is
twenty
times
less
than that ofthe
non-irradiated
specimen at roomtemperature.Theelongation
of
the
non-irradiated
specimen
is
300%
at
250'C.
2.1.2.
Compression
test
We
conducted
these
tests to investigate
the
resis-
tance characteristics
of the
sealing material at
high
temperatures.
(1)
Test
procedures
The test'specimen
configuration
is
shown,
in
Fig.
4.
The testing
temperatures
wereroom temperature,
150-C,
200-C,
250-C, 300"C,
and
350'C.
The test
speci-
men
was
compressed
to
75%
of
its
original height.
It
was
held
atthe test
temperature.for
22
hours andthenthe residual strain
was
measured.
We
testedthreespecimens
under
thesameconditions.
(2)
Results
Theresults areshown
in
Fig.
5.
The
residual strain
gradually increases
up
to
150'C.Abovethis tempera-
1000
0-0
Non-IrradiatedIn
Air
&--,
Non-Irradiated.In
Steam
0-
-0
Irradiatedin
Air
&--A
Irradiatedjn
Steam
0
"
C
500
0}
0
•w
Fig.
4.
Dimensi
ture,
it increa
men
reaches
reaches
100%
the irradiatec
menwas
alre:
22.
Small-mo
We
consid(1)
leakage
c
(2)
leakage
c;
on
the
secon,
the test
speci
a
groove-anc
used widelywas 250
mm
The test
gasl
used
in
actua
Ji
100
-•
50
0
C
Temperature
('C)
Fig.
3.
Effect of temperature
to
elongation ratio.
Fig.
5

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