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Testing & Measurement Q &A

# Testing & Measurement Q &A

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05/22/2015

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Question 1: Explain why a dynometer wattmeter would indicate the average power whenmeasuring power in a single phase A.C circuitAnswer:On an A.C circuit the deflection is proportional to the average power, since the moving pointercannot follow the rapid variations in torque because of its momentum.Question 2: A) Show how one wattmeter is connected to measure power in a three phase threewire load.B) Show how two wattmeter are connected to measure power in a three phase star connectedloadAnswer:A) One wattmeter method is used to measure power in a three phase, three wire load.Total Power = 3×wattmeterB) Two wattmeter method used to measure power in a three phase star connected load.P
T
T
=P
1
+P
2

Question 3: Explain with the aid of diagram how the power factor in a single phase circuit canbe determined using the voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter method.Answer:Dividing the true power (W) by apparent power (VA), one can arrive at the power factor cos
ф
.Because the wattmeter will give the true power, we can connect a voltmeter, an ammeter andwattmeter in the circuit. Use the results to obtained the apparent power from the voltmeter andammeter, and the true power from the wattmeter and so work out the power factor, usingP=VIcos
ф
.Question 4: Explain with the aid of a diagram how a power factor meter is connected todetermine the power factor across a single phase load.Answer:

The most common type is the crossed coil power factor meter. It consist two coils, mounted onthe same shaft but at right angles to each other. The moving coil rotates in the magnetic fieldprovided by the field coil that carries the line current. One coil of the moveable element isconnected in series with an inductor across the lines. Since no control springs are used, thebalance position of the moveable element depends on the resulting torque developed by the twocrossed coils. When the moveable element is in a balanced position, the contribution to the totaltorque by each element must be equal but of opposite signs.The torque developed; T
dev
in each coil is a function of the current through the coil and thereforedepends on the impedance of that coil circuit. The torque is also proportional to the mutualinductance between the crossed coil and the stationary field coil. This mutual inductance dependson the angular position of the angular position of the crossed coil elements with respect to theposition of the stationary field coil. When the moveable element is at balance, it can be easilyshown that its angular displacement is a function of the phase angle between the line current(field coil) and line voltage (crossed coil). The indication of the pointer which is connected to themoveable element is calibrated directly in terms of the phase angle or power pactor.Question 5: Explain the use of an insulation resistance tester used to measure insulationresistance of a cable and state typical acceptable values.Answer:An insulation resistance tester is used to measure the insulation resistance of a cable so as tomake sure there is no possibility of leakage current flowing between insulated conductor and alsoto make sure that there are no leakage of current between the conductor of the installation and
the general mass of earth. Typical values range from 1MΩ to 5MΩ