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Factors Causing Food Spoilage

Factors Causing Food Spoilage



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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: AMIN BUHARI ABDUL KHADER on Dec 22, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Q1. Define1. Natural preservatives: -
The naturally occurring food stuffs such as sugar, oiland apices which are used for preserving food are called natural preservatives.
2. Asepsis:-
Keeping out microorganisms from food is called asepsis.
3. Food spoilage:-
The undesirable change in food which makes it unfit for human consumption is called food spoilage.
4. Developed preservatives:-
During certain processes, some products can bedeveloped having a preservative effect. Such products are called developedpreservatives.
5. Artificial preservatives:-
The synthetic chemicals that are used for thepreservation of food are called artificial preservatives.
6. Food poisoning:-
An acute illness resulting from the ingestion of foodcontaining poisonous substances are called food poisoning.
Q2. Give scientific reasons:-1. Packaging material for food should be selected properly.
Ans. Packaging material for food should be selected properly because1. The material should be non – reactive, non toxic and non corrosive so as toavoid spoilage of food.2. To maintain the quality of food, it depends upon the packaging material usedfor its packing.
2. Potable water must be used for foodstuffs.
Ans. Potable water must be used for food stuffs because1. Potable water is free from micro – organisms.2. It does not contaminate the food.
3. Potatoes are irradiated before storing.
Ans. Potatoes are irradiated before storing because1. Potatoes sprout during storage.2. To avoid the potatoes from sprouting they are irradiated with gamma rays.
4. A high standard of cleanliness must be maintained at food processingplants. (or)Food handlers should be hygienically clean.
Ans. A high standard of cleanliness must be maintained at food processing plantsbecause1. Most of the diseases and contamination of food is brought due to unhygienicconditions of the food handlers.
2. Pathogens can be transmitted to other via the agency of food handlers.3. Many communicable and contagious diseases are spread if food handlers donot maintain health and hygiene.
5. Fruits and vegetables should not get bruised.
Ans. Fruits and vegetable should not get bruised because1. Bruising facilitates the entry of micro – organisms.2. They use the nutrients of food for their growth and activities there by decreasethe nutritive value.3. They also release toxins, which contaminates the fruits and vegetables.
6. Milk should be preserved at low temperature.
Ans. Milk should be preserved at low temperature because1. Low temperature treatment retards the chemical and enzymatic reactions.2. It also slows down or stops the growth of micro – organisms.3. Milk can remain fresh without contamination for a longer period if stored at lowtemperature.
7. Combinations of different preservative methods are used for preserving jams.
Ans. Combinations of different preservative methods are used for preserving jams because.1. Single method of preserving is not effective.2. For preparing jam three methods are involved such as asepsis, use of hightemperature and use of preservative i.e. sugar.
8. Use of high temperature is essential for food preservation.
Ans. Use of high temperature is essential for food preservation because1. The micro – organisms can be killed by using high temperature.2. The enzymes present in food can also be inactivated by heating, boiling etc.
9. Use of low temperature is a method of food preservation.
Ans. Use of low temperature is a method of food preservation because.1. Low temperature treatments are useful to retard chemical and enzymaticreactions.2. They are also useful to slow down or stop growth and activity of micro –organisms.
10. Butter milk should not be kept in a brass vessel.
Ans. Butter milk should not be kept in brass vessel because,1. Butter milk contains an organic acid called as lactic acid.2. The lactic acid present in the buttermilk reacts with the brass vessel.3. The chemical reaction brings about spoilage of butter milk, which is unfit for consumption.
11. Cut meat should not be kept for long time.
Ans.1. After slaughtering killing animals certain chemical changes takes place.2. Degradation of glycogen continues to form intermediate product specially lacticacid.3. Lactic acid increases acidity of meat, which affects the nutritive value of thefoodstuffs. Hence, cut meat should not kept for longer time.
12. Groundnuts are stored for a longer period.
Ans.1. They turn rancid and develop an undurable flavour in it.2. This is due to chemical reaction in it. Hence, groundnuts are stored for alonger period.
Q3. Answer the following in short.1. List the extrinsic and intrinsic factors of spoilage in foodstuffs. Give oneexample each.
Extrinsic factors:-
1. Physical damage due to improper handling.Example: If food is handled improperly while plucking, transporting, drying,preserving etc. it may cause bruising after the tissues of food. It facilitates theentry of micro organisms and insects in food.2. Chemical reactions due to contact with metals.Example:- Butter milk gets spoilt if kept in a brass vessel.3. Micro OrganismsExample:- Yeast, bacteria etc. contaminate the food, which cause food poisoning.4. Insects, rodents, birds and domestic animals.Example: Fruits, vegetables and food gains are largely destroyed by insects,rodents, birds and domestic animals. Such food becomes unfit for humanconsumption.
Intrinsic Factors.
1. Enzymatic reactions:-Example : Enzymes present in food starts degrading the food resulting intospoilage of food.2. Chemical ReactionsExamples:- Groundnuts stored for a longer period, they rancid and develop anundurable flavour in it. This is due to chemical reaction in it.
2. Explain briefly different methods of food preservation.
Ans. The different methods of food preservation are as follows:1. Asepsis or keeping out micro – organisms:- Foods are preserved by notallowing the micro – organisms to come in contact with food. This is done bykeeping sanitation and hygiene related to food.2. Removal of micro – organisms:- In this method micro – organisms areremoved by washing, trimming, filtration etc.

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