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101 Shortcuts in Math

101 Shortcuts in Math

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Published by jwchikapow2
Shortcuts in Math
Shortcuts in Math

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Published by: jwchikapow2 on May 09, 2012
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101
SHORTCUTSINMATH
ANYONECANDO
By
GORDONROCKMAKER
}
I
~
FrederickFeUPublishers,Inc.NewYork
 
,NewPrinting,]975
Copyright
©
19fi5
by
GordonRockmakerAllright,reserved,Nopar!ofthisworkcovered
by
(becopyrightherconmaybereproducedorusedinanyform
or
byanymcans-e-graph
ic,
electronic,ormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording
taping,Dr~lformaliQnstorage
andretrievalsystems
~wi\hQUIpermissionof
thepublisher.
Forinlormatlonaddress.
FrederickFellPublishers,Inc.
386
ParkAvenueSouthNewYork.N.Y.10016UbraryofCongressCatalogCardNo.615500
Publishedsimultaneously
itl
Caflada
by
George
J,
;\1cl.ecd,Limited,Townto2B,OntarinManufacturedintheUnitedStalesofAmerica
PREFACE
101ShortCutsinMathAnyoneCanDowillunlockthesecretsoftheartofcalculation.
It
willincreaseyourpower
of
computationandtherebyenableyoutogetmoreoutofthemathematicsyounowknow.Youwillsoonbeamazedatyourabilitytosolveoncecomplexproblemsquickly..Mathematicsisperhapsthemostimportantbasicsci-encetoday..
It
is
apowerfulandindispensabletoolineveryphaseofscienceandengineering.Theworldofbusinessandfinancecouldnotsurvivewithoutit.Fromlawandmedicinetothefinearts,fromatomicphysicstoshoppingatthesupermarket,mathematicsplaysanessentialroleinourdailylives.Manypeoplenevergetfartherthangrade-schoolmathe-maticssimplybecausetheybecomeboggeddownintheelementaryarithmeticoperations.Forthemmathematicsissomethingmysteriousandbeyondunderstanding..Theyreadaboutelectroniccomputersperformingcomplicatedarithmeticoperationsatspeedsmeasuredinmicroseconds.(amicrosecondisamillionthpartofasecond)andwonderwhy
it
isstillimportanttoknowhowtoperformtheseoperationsthemselves..Thereasonisobvious,Formostpeopleintheiroffices,shops,classrooms,stores,orhomes,useofsuchelectronicbrainsisimpracticalorimpossible.Thesimplefactisthatengineersandscientistshaveyettodevelopacom-puterascompactandefficientasthehumanbrain.Theshortcutsinthisbookcoverthebasicarithmeticoperationsofaddition,subtraction,multiplication,anddivision.Theyareusedwithwholenumbers,dectrnals,
v
 
vi
PREFACE
fractions,mixednumbers.aridpercentage.Inaword,theyrangeacrossthewholefieldofcalculationoneislikelytouse.Incompilingtheshortcutstobeincludedinthisbook,onlyauthenticoneswerechosen.Anauthenticshortcutisonethatwillproduce
an
answerquicklyandeasilywith-outthenecessityofgoingthroughtheusualintermediatesteps,anditisusuallyveryspecific.Bycuttingthroughthetime-consumingmechanicaloperationsandgoingstraighttotheheartoftheanswer,atremendousamountofneedlessworkisavoided.
All
computationsinthisbookareperformedfromlefttoright.Thisisthefirsttimethisapproachhasbeenappliedtoshort-cut
methods,
Itpermitsyoutowritetheanswertoaproblemimmediatelyinthesamesequenceinwhich
it
isread-fromleft.toright.Emphasishasbeendeliberately
placed
ongeneralusesratherthanonthespecificusesofaparticularshortcut.Thepracticalvalueofashortcutisthat
it
canbeusedin
a
widevarietyofapplications.Bydemonstratingonlyoneoratbestafewspecificapplications,thedangerexiststhatthereaderwillnotventurebeyondtheonesdescribed.Nobookcancontaineveryshortcutinmath,butthisbookdoesincludesomeofthemostusefulmodernmethodsdevised.Perhapsthemostimportantfunctionofthisbookistointroduceyoutothewidepracticalapplicationofmathe-maticalshortcuts.Usingyourowncreativespiritandthecuriositytoexperiment,thereis
no
limittothenum-ber
of
shortcutsyoucandeviseforyourownspecialneeds.
TABLEOFCONTENTS
PREFACE
'I
INTRODUCTION
1
Chapter1
SHORTCUTSINADDITION
7
1.
AddingConsecutiveNumbers9
2.
AddingConsecutiveNumbersStartingfrom
110
3.FindingtheSumofAUOddNumbersStartingfrom1114.FindingtheSumofAllEvenNumbersStartingfrom2
12
5.
AddingaSeriesofNumbers
With
aCommonDifference
13
6.
AddingaSeriesofNumbersHavingaCommon
Ratio14
Chapter2
SHORTCUTSINMULTIPLICATION
17
THEmGITS17
7.MultiplyingbyNumbersEnding
in
Zeros
20
8.
Multiplying
by221
9.Multiplying
by
324
10..
Multiplying
by427
11.
Multiplying
by52912.
Multiplying
by63113.
Multiplying
by
733
14.Multiplying
by
835
15.
Multiplying
by
9
37
vii:

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