In order to respond appropriately, however, with anyintervention, it is essential that markets are analysed.The reasons or this are threeold. It is essentialto have a sound understanding o the markets’capacities and blockages, so that agencies can avoidinterventions that are potentially harmul to livelihoodsand recovery while identiying ways in which the marketsmay eectively help deliver the humanitarian response.Market analysis will also highlight those activities thatare needed to support the wider market systems to beable to meet the needs o the targeted beneciaries inthe emergency phase and possibly beyond.Based on the need to develop a rapid marketassessment tool to cover an identied methodologicalgap in market analysis in emergency contexts, OxamGB (OGB), the International Rescue Committee (IRC)and Practical Action (PA), in consultation with a widerange o other agencies, undertook the developmentand piloting o the Emergency Market Mappingand Analysis (EMMA) toolkit. The EMMA marked asignicant departure rom other emergency responsemarket assessments, in that, based on the value chainanalysis principles, EMMA uses a combination oexisting tools, rom seasonal calendars to market systemmaps, to oer a systemic view o market interactions,both demand and supply, rom the inrastructural andinstitutional environment to inter-regional or crossborder trade. It combines market analysis (marketunctionalities, potentials and constraints) and gapanalysis (people’s uncovered needs) to develop aresponse analysis to inorm programming. The EMMAtoolkit allows or a rapid understanding o marketsystems, as it promotes rough and ready ‘goodenough’ analysis, and is designed to complement otherassessments that provide data about household prolesand expenditures. The toolkit can bring clarity andpurpose to programming; allow the disaster aectedpopulation to access the most appropriate responsesand support market unctions and environments tosupply basic immediate needs while keeping an eye onuture development and sel suciency.
There is no doubt that, for many international organisations, humanitarian interventions today are verydifferent to those in the past. Not only has there been a growing recognition of the harm that some moretraditional emergency responses can do to affected populations’ coping strategies and livelihoods, but therehas been an equal realisation of the central role that markets play in people’s lives, through giving themaccess to basic needs, jobs and income generating opportunities.
BOMIMARGIBILOFAGBARPOLURIVER GEESINOEGRANDCAPEMOUNTBONGRIVER CESSNIMBAMONTSERRADOGRANDBASSAGRANDKRU
International boundaryCounty boundaryNational capitalCounty capitalAirport
Map o Liberia’s Districts