Z Amber Richter, ID: 13585181Final EssayMODULE: 1VIS7A9.1 - Creative Digital TechnologyCourse Leader, Alison CraigheadJanuary 19, 2012
The Cultural Amalgamation W
hich Produced Mare Tralla’s
The first GPS satellite was launched by the US government in 1978, completed in 1995, and by theyear 2000 there was a large civilian demand for the use of GPS technology
. CCTV was first used inGermany in 1942 to observe a V-2 rocket launch, then again in the UK at Trafalgar square during 1960with the visit of the Thai royal family, and to surveille Guy Fawkes activities later that year
.In a similar vein of military orientated workings rather than peaceful creative inspiration, U.S.president
Dwight Eisenhower’s desperation to stay technologically
on par with the Soviet
satellite in 1957 spawned the establishment of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network andgovernmental research commissions therein, leading to the merging of private commercial entities withthose research projects during the 1960s. During the
1980s the National Science Foundation’s funding of a
backbone network lead to the standardization of Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) in 1982, which in turnled to further commercial expansion spawning Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and other worldwidenetworking technologies. Ultimately the web was commercialized by the1990s
, allowing Lefebvre's
part of traditional media, to rise up and join with new media
technologymetamorphosing into a cultural deluge of state, utilitarian, social and artistic applications of new media.To contextualize, by various estimates it took radio somewhere between thirty five and thirty eight years
‘A Brief History of GPS’,
(online edition), 2009:<http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1901500,00.html>.
Bill Stewart, et al. contributors
(date unlisted): <http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ii.htm, InternetHistory>, Wikipedia.org: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Internet>.
Critique of Everyday Life, Volume One
, translated by John Moore (London & New York: Verso, 1991), p.33.
See ‘new media’ as defined by
Martin Lister, Jon Dovey, Seth Giddings, Iain Grant and Kieran Kelly,
New Media, ACritical Introduction
, Second Edition (Oxon, New York: Routledge 2009), p. 9-99.